Gale harold partner
A deadly cyclone destroyed much of Vanuatu's second-largest town, Luganville, but early warnings appeared to have prevented mass casualties in the Pacific nation, with some residents sheltered in caves to stay safe, aid workers said Tuesday.
2020.04.07 08:18 Graphenes A deadly cyclone destroyed much of Vanuatu's second-largest town, Luganville, but early warnings appeared to have prevented mass casualties in the Pacific nation, with some residents sheltered in caves to stay safe, aid workers said Tuesday.
Tropical Cyclone Harold, which claimed 27 lives when it swept through the Solomon Islands last week, lashed Vanuatu's northern provinces overnight as a scale-topping category five superstorm
The town of Luganville
, population 16,500, took a direct hit as winds of 235 kilometres per hour (145 miles per hour) brought down buildings and caused flash flooding.
Map locating Tropical Cyclone Harold which swept through Vanuatu's northern provinces overnight on Tuesday as a scale-topping category five superstorm Photo: AFP / AFP
World Vision's Vanuatu director Kendra Gates Derousseau said the charity's local manager told her the damage was comparable to the last category five monster to hit the country, Cyclone Pam in 2015.
"I managed to speak to her on a satellite phone and she estimated about 50 percent of dwellings have been significantly damaged, the World Vision office has lost its roof,"
"She mentioned that she has heard no reports of casualties or any significant injuries at this time," the Port Vila-based aid worker added.
Communications remain down across much of the country and Gates Derousseau said the scale of the disaster would remain unclear until remote island communities, such as southern Pentecost, had been contacted. https://preview.redd.it/pwzdg8v79cr41.png?width=805&format=png&auto=webp&s=efc4bddc04ba75dea248425589330c5156d38252
"They were directly in the eye (of the cyclone) and they have very few concrete buildings, they shelter in traditional thatch dwellings or caves," she said.
Red Cross Vanuatu secretary general Jacqueline de Gaillande said the communications issues meant that the most recent updates she received were social media posts from the charity's local staffers on Monday evening.
"They showed a lot of damage but we have no numbers of casualties yet,"
A massive international aid effort was launched after Cyclone Pam in 2015 flattened Port Vila, killed 11 people and wiped out almost two-thirds of the country's economic capacity.
Gates Derousseau said a similar operation was unlikely in Harold's wake because Vanuatu was determined to remain one of the world's few places with no confirmed COVID-19 cases.
She said allowing an influx of international aid workers risked inadvertently importing the virus, so Vanuatu's international borders would remain closed to new arrivals.
"It (the aid effort) has to be locally led, locally driven, working with humanitarian partners who are currently in-country.
"There are already large stockpiles of supplies in place, which is a lesson we learned from Pam, so we can get to work fairly quickly."
She said replacement supplies could be brought in from overseas once the stockpiles ran out, but they would be disinfected to ensure they were virus-free.
Vanuatu lacks the health infrastructure to deal with even a mild coronavirus outbreak, with local media reporting last month that the nation of 300,000 has only two respiratory ventilators.
Cyclone Harold has already caused widespread damage in the Solomon Islands, where an inter-island ferry ignored weather warnings and 27 people died after being washed off its decks.
Modelling early Tuesday showed it continuing to track southeast, passing south of Fiji as a category four Wednesday and weakening to category two as it brushes Tonga a day later.
However, the storm system has already proved unpredictable, with forecasters initially expecting it to only reach category three before petering out.
Fiji on Tuesday pre-emptively issued cyclone alerts for its southern islands, warning of high seas and damaging gale-force winds.
submitted by Graphenes
to NoctilucentNews [link] [comments]
2019.10.30 01:05 midniteauth0r I'm a debuting MMA referee and the things the promotion is asking me to do can't be legal
I want to preface this by saying I am a huge MMA fan, I remember watching UFC 1 with my Father and Uncle in the back room of my Grandparent’s house in 1993 when I was only 8. Watching Royce Gracie use his exemplary grappling skills to easily beat men much larger than him blew me away, I was not a big kid by any stretch of the imagination so seeing this small guy destroy these giants was amazing to me. I instantly begged my parents to allow me to begin training in some form of martial arts, my father was supportive but my mother was completely against it, the sport was immensely brutal with no rules and there was no money in it, no parent in their right mind would let their child get into MMA. As the 90s went on the chances of me being allowed to train disappeared completely as the sport was banned in multiple states and brandished as ‘human cockfighting’ by John McCain.
So I spent my teenage years as nothing but a spectator doing my best to keep up with every event in UFC and Pride when I could. I played the usual, generic and boring sports like football and baseball. Thankfully, I was able to sign up for wrestling in high school and I got pretty good at it, not good enough to get a scholarship but good enough to cause the best guys trouble. After I finished school, I decided not to go the route of college instead choosing to work in my Dad’s butchers while training in my free time, by the time I turned 18 MMA was becoming a more lucrative sport to be in and my mother couldn’t stop me from training. I had my first amateur fight four months later in a literal bingo hall in New Jersey, the event had an attendance of 43 and I had to pay $20 to be allowed to fight. It turned out to be a good investment on my part as I finished the fight in 45 seconds with a guillotine choke. Over the next few months, I fought four more times at an amateur level; finishing every fight, securing 3 submissions and the final fight ending tumultuously after I dropped him with a flying knee. After these wins I was offered a chance to turn pro, and I jumped at the opportunity.
All of my fights were for the creatively named Cage Fighting Extreme Punch Championships in Atlanta, I went 4-1, badly injuring my back in my second fight and subsequently injuring it worse in the next three match-ups, after visiting a doctor I was told to retire or invest in a wheelchair. After this my life began a somewhat downward spiral, I began drinking often, skipping out on work and just causing problems for everyone in my life. I know this may be hard for some people to understand but MMA was my life, all I did was go to work then go to train, this was all I knew and now it was gone. However, a chance meeting with an old training partner changed everything.
A few months after my retirement and subsequent spiral into alcoholism and self-loathing, I bumped into an old training partner, Marty Askren. Marty had started his own promotion with his friend and they were about to run some amateur events but had no luck with finding a referee. He asked me if I could help as he knew that I was well versed in every rule and being a former fighter there was a large chance the fighters would respect my authority. I had nothing to do and he offered me $500 for the night of work so I said why not. To my surprise, I loved it, more than loved it actually. I was obsessed with it, they say when one door shuts, another opens but often we are too focused on the closed door that we don’t notice the opened one, well I was now fully focused on the now opened door of refereeing. For the next six events I was the sole referee and after every event I felt a rush I hadn’t felt since I stepped into the cage for the first time. Things were going great but I was hoping for a bigger challenge, a chance to referee some serious pro fights and after the last event I was given that chance, though I wish I hadn’t.
As I left the arena I was stopped by a large, middle aged man with a smile wide enough to give Cheshire Cat a run for his money. Something about the man instantly creeped me out, he was around 50 years old with slicked back silver hair. He was tall at least 6 ft 5 but immensely slim, his limbs seemed to have a mind of their own often moving and twitching while he stayed still. He reminded me of a praying mantis in his mannerisms and overall look. His skin however was the creepiest aspect of him, it looked completely tight, as if it didn’t fit his skeleton properly. It looked as if he had lost an amazing amount of weight and his excess skin was now held back by pegs.
The praying mantis man introduced himself as Magnus Cornwall and he was the CEO of SUFC or the Strangely Unique Fighting Championships.
“Weird name” I remarked
“That’s what we are hoping, Mr. Camacho” he responded.I had not told him my name but I didn’t think too much into that, he had most likely asked someone at the event and networking was normal. I chatted with him for some time where he informed me they had lost their usual referee for their events to ‘unfortunate circumstances’ and they were in the market for a new one. Their event would take part in Alaska. I questioned this and how I’d even afford to get there, referees didn’t make a hell of a lot. Before I’d even began to decline however, he smiled wide, offering $5,000 dollars for the event and my travel/accommodation would be covered. This was an insane offer and like anyone, thought it to be too good to be true, Magnus must have sensed my distrust in the situation, because he then handed me a briefcase with $2,000 in it.
“Consider that a deposit, on top of the agreed upon fee” he told me.
Everything rational was screaming at me to walk away, that this was not on the up and up. But my career ran through my mind, the feeling of connectivity to the MMA community, the desire to matter…
Before I knew it, I’d uttered the words “okay, let’s do it” and that was that. I was the new Head Referee for SUFC and soon I’d be on my way to the ass end of nowhere to call a fight. Once I accepted, Magnus gave me a big handshake, his hand was slimy and his skin felt even worse than it looked.
As Magnus walked off, I called out for him:“Hey! Mr.Cornwall you never got my details.” I shouted down the empty parking lot to him.
“Oh, don’t worry. We’ll find you.” he called back while smiling, even at a distance retaining that air of uncomfortableness.
As he smiled I noticed his tongue and my skin began to itch and my mouth felt dry. It was split down the middle, a forked tongue in the head of an already disturbing man. I knew body modifications were big but there was something about a large, spindly, 50 year old man in an unfitted charcoal gray suit having a split tongue which was deeply unsettling.
A week passed and no word came from Magnus or SUFC. I felt as if I had been duped, researching was useless as no internet search I did revealed anything of this supposed organisation. There was, however, an SUFC in Arizona...but that was Sandwich Union Food Corp. Eventually, I put it to the back of my mind and I refused to touch the money in the briefcase, not even wanting to risk more than a glance at it. I was convinced it was either counterfeit or gained through nefarious means, the anxiety of holding onto such money was conflicting with my desire to get my bills paid. I was beginning to lose hope, even fielding offers from other companies until I received a package from an unknown sender with no return address. When I opened it, I saw many contents: A uniform, an ID card attached to a lanyard, a piece of chalk, a red lighter, and a letter from SUFC.
The ID card weirdly said 'this event is sponsored by Italian Goat' however it was the letter - which to be fair is more of a multi-page document - that became the driving reason I am documenting this, I don't believe the things being asked of me are legal but I also don't know what to do because if I refuse to ref, I have the sinking sensation myself or the people close to me may get hurt. I may be a fighter, but I’m not above asking for help. The document reads as follows; Mr. Jorge Camacho, We are delighted that you have decided to join our organization, we loved your performances on 'the little leagues' and believe the authority you show in the cage is exactly what we need. Of course, we will pay a referee of your skills quite handsomely, with every event and subsequent fine performance pushing your wage up even more. We can make a lot of money together Mr.Camacho, however discretion is imperative for our relationship to work. SUFC is an exclusive club, fans at the event or watching at home cannot just simply start watching. Instead, they have to pay quite lucratively and must go through several vetting stages. When you leave your home to travel, you cannot tell anyone of your true intentions, simply tell them you are attending a seminar or a trial for a company like Bellator or PFL. If you tell anyone, we will know and it will lead to your swift and immediate termination. First point of contention is your travel arrangements: 1. Your flight to Anchorage is booked for tomorrow at 3:00PM. When you land in Anchorage immediately get your bags and head to Bus Stop 4, you will take the 14X bus which will drop you off at these exact coordinates 61.764335, -157.30951454. Please have longitude and latitude up on your phone. If you do not get off the bus at these exact coordinates then you will be unable to get off the bus and will be forced to ride it until it reaches these coordinates again, this can range from one hour to twelve years, as you can imagine this would cause serious harm to our event so please, get off when you reach the coordinates. 2. Once you get off in the town, please face away from the buildings across the road from you, gazing upon them for more than twenty seconds has exhibited...issues with those who have trouble resisting. Now we know you to be strong willed...but why risk it, eh? 3a. After four minutes and twenty-seven seconds pass, a 2005 BLACK Audi A4 will arrive and you are to quickly glance at it and walk backwards into the vehicle. If you glance at the vehicle and it is not a 2005 model then you are to declare "you can't trick me Heelkick Lad, you will not trick me or drive me mad". The vehicle will leave and you will wait another four minutes and twenty-seven seconds where you will repeat these steps if need be. NOTE: IF YOU DO NOT KNOW WHAT A 2005 AUDI A4 MODEL LOOKS LIKE, PLEASE RESEARCH AND ACQUAINT YOURSELF WITH IT. 3b. The driver of the car is named Shawn Smith but you can call him Smithy if you desire. There is not too much to worry about with Smithy, he is a tad slow but he is a brilliant driver and one of our most important assets. We only have one rule with Smithy, you must talk to him for the entire journey. This is for two reasons: (i). He is a quite social and gets anxious if people do not talk to him. (ii). He has extreme narcolepsy and could fall asleep at the wheel if you don't keep him alert. This may not happen but please don't roll the dice on this. 4. Please be already in your referee gear when you get to the arena and ensure your ID is worn around your neck and easy to see, walk to the front entrance and hand your shoes to the long silver-haired man that will be sitting on a four-foot stool. This is Harold
*, he is a friendly man who will respectfully burn your shoes and hand you back the ashes before the fight is to commence. You must take these ashes and spread them on the steps leading up to the cage, failure to do so WILL have dire consequences for either yourself or your first love.* Harold will also give you a device with numerical values on it, these numerical values correlate to failsafes set in place in case an undesirable situation occurs. Now, your job is more than just referee, Mr.Camacho. You are more of an Event Official and will handle controlling the entire event with help from our two commentators Gale and Vito
*.* 5a. Gale and Vito are a tandem and should only be approached when together if you see either Gale or Vito alone DO NOT approach them. If they spot you, please take the chalk which we have given you and write your name on the floor in front of you, stare at it for exactly twenty-three seconds and then turn around and walk away. 5b. When you approach Gale and Vito, please compliment them on their suits. They take great pride in their suit collection. If Gale asks you what you like to do besides refereeing, please do not tell him that you enjoy 17th Century Philosophy. If you do then I suggest you hide for the foreseeable future. 5c. Vito can only speak when prompted by Gale asking "what do you think, Vito?". If Vito speaks and you did not hear Gale prompt him then please press the numbers 1-1-9-1-2-1-2
*, our staff will handle the rest. Other than these small details, you will find Gale and Vito to be quite the charming duo, a modern day Gorilla Monsoon and Bobby Heenan almost!* Next up for your attention, Mr.Camacho, is the crowd. 6a. Now as I said before, the crowd are a particular bunch and should be treated as such. The arena is split into four sections named Dark, Light, Owl and Cat, respectively. The reasoning for these specific naming choices is the masks that will be worn by the individuals in these sections will relate mutually to the name of the section i.e. Avian masks in Owl, feline masks in Cat, completely white masks in Light and completely black masks in Dark. 6b. If you see a mask in the wrong section, immediately type 2-2-1-1-8-1-4 and then the section 1 = Dark, 2 = Light, 3 = Owl, 4 = Cat
*.* The intruders seat will be swiftly engulfed in flames and the section will be quarantined until given the okay by a member of staff. 6c. If, at any time during the contest, someone turns away from the fight, attempts to leave or in any way messed with their mask, then you must type 1-4-1-5 and they will be quickly dealt with by our security. 6d. If the match-up lasts more than nine minutes then the Owl section will begin to hoot and the light section will chant in Latin. You must allow them to finish this chant, failure to do so will reflect badly on your performance and on your first friend you met on summer vacation. 6d. Lastly, before you allow the bout to start I beg of you to please turn and face the Cat section, shout as loud as you can ‘ROW H, I DO WHAT I DO FOR YOUR PLEASURE’ then please snip a small part of your hair off and burn it with the lighter we have attached to this package, failure to do this will see the death of all four sections sat in Row H. You will agree, this would be detrimental to our business model. I am sorry for the length of this document but this is for your safety and for the safety of our business. Finally, Mr.Camacho, we get onto the fighters: 7a. Both fighters, Fighter One and Fighter Two will enter the cage exactly one minute between each other, if Fighter Two enters before the minute is up, simply shut the cage door until the minute is reached, if he enters after the minute you are to leave the cage, walk to the exit in the left corner by the Dark section and you are to inform Jonass
*, our Nordic attendant. He will handle the situation accordingly with his particular skills learned in the mountains of Valdres.* 7b. You may notice that our fighters will both be wearing muzzles over their faces, this may seem odd to you but there is a simple reasoning behind this. In the past we have had fighters scream obscenities during the fight and some have even attempted occult chanting. Naturally, occult chanting would give an immensely unfair advantage to said fighter so it cannot be allowed. As for the obscenities, well...I think we can both agree that a respectable organization such as ours cannot allow such filth on our cameras. These are the reasons for the muzzles, please do not feel uncomfortable about them and know the the two fighters have fully consented to this bout and are here of their own volition. 8a. Some information on the bout itself; we do not follow the unified rules of Mixed Martial Arts. This is in part to our fights having no real rules. We allow soccer kicks to a downed opponent, biting, eye gouging, fish hooking and anything else in a fighter's arsenal. We do this because at SUFC we hope to find the best fighter. Rules hamper certain fight styles and allow defensive and sometimes boring wrestlers to take an opponent down and lay there until the fights are over for an easy win, if we allowed this our crowd and fans at home would be less than pleased and may take matters into their own hands (the Owl section have been known to sneak arcane items into our events). It is for these reasons that we also have no time limits, no rounds, and thankfully no judges. The fights will end in the cage and will be ended by the fighters. YOU ARE NOT TO END THE BOUT FOR ANYTHING. 8b. You are there to ensure the event goes by swimmingly, you are not there to intervene in the fight. The fight will be over once one opponent cannot under any circumstances continue. This would include being: (i) Knocked out completely unconscious for more than thirty seconds (if they wake up before thirty seconds then continue the battle). (ii)A broken back/leg/jaw/skull (a broken arm would not satisfy a stoppage) (iii) Death. This is the most important rule for you to follow, Mr.Camacho. We have had issues in the past with power hungry officials attempting to stop the bout, but know that we have a no nonsense approach to early stoppages and breaking this rule will see drastic measures taken against you and every person who attended your class in the seventh grade. I hope we have been clear on this and I hope you truly understand how important this is. To continue on with our mission of exciting, true to life fights between two warriors, we again have some rules on fighter tactics. 9a. If the crowd begins to boo the fight due to defensive tactics being applied by both fighters, you will be required to press the 0 digit on the controller, this will activate the fighters shock collars and will deliver a controlled jolt to their neck and down their spine. This will barely hurt our fighters and it is only being used as a suggestion for them to up the ante. Again, if you refuse to do this, the crowd may take action. I would also like to reiterate that the fighters have consented to this and know that these steps will be taken. THEY ARE HERE THROUGH THEIR OWN CHOICES. 9b. If the battle has commenced and continued for over twenty five minutes we would ask you to type in the code 4-1-1-4-3-5
*. This will open up the floor in the direct center of the cage, it will reveal a pool of water that may or may not contain certain predatory fish. Again, this is to bring some excitement to this violent and* fully consensual engagement. We have rarely had to use this feature, we doubt you will have to but we are required to have you tuned in on the situation to appease those involved in the keeping of our realm. 9c. If the fight somehow lasts an entire hour. you will be required to push in the digits 6-0
*. This will see our employee* Gorg arrive in the cage with a large, club covered in nails. The fight will then be changed to a 2-on-1 engagement wherein the two former opponents will team up and fight Gorg, they themselves will be given a mace and a spear. The fighters have been made aware of this rule. THEY HAVE GIVEN THEIR FULL CONSENT AND WANT TO ENTERTAIN THE FANS. 10. Finally, once the battle has drawn itself to a close, you will be required to immediately leave the cage and towards one of the near exits. Once you reach the exit, hand the controller to the assistant guarding that door and take their shoes, put them on and leave. Your driver Shawn will be waiting at the front door, he will hand you some new clothes and the money you are owed. You must follow all of these steps closely and complete them within five minutes. Failure to do so will have devastating consequences on your parents and six of their friends. Shawn will drive you back to the bus station - remember to engage him in constant conversation
*. You should immediately take the next bus to Anchorage and take a taxi to the* Banshee Bed and Breakfast where we have booked you in a room. I know this sounds like a long day and you may feel like staying in Red Devil and travelling to Anchorage the next morning but staying in Red Devil for longer than 24 hours is not recommended to anyone who may have the desire to see anywhere else on Earth. And that Mr.Camacho is all the information you need to know for your lucrative and imperative new profession. I hope you are as excited as I am to have you join the SUFC family. I look forward to working alongside you in bringing mortal battles to appease those above us. Always remember, strange means different, different means unique and unique means good. Yours Truly, Magnus Cornwall SUFC Founder and CEO.
The letter left me shaken, nauseous and confused. Questions flew around my mind, leaving me in a state of delirium; Why did I agree to this? Why did they choose me? How are these events legal? How do I get out of this?
None of these questions needed answers as much as the last. Ultimately, the answer I concluded after racking my brain all night is that I simply cannot get out of this. I must officiate this event for my own safety and the safety of anyone who has ever been unlucky enough to cross my path. So here I am, in the taxi on the way to the airport to catch my flight to Anchorage.
I know writing this may in itself upset my employers but my hope is that they will fail to see this and if they do I will have performed well enough for them to see me as irreplaceable and imperative to their organization.
Another variable of not is that they emailed me a years membership package to their VOD service, so I could, in Magnus’ own words: “Bear witness to the strange and unique world of SUFC and see all the good work I put in.”
But there was no on-demand website or video hosting platform. No, instead there was a complex link that when I recognised the extension sent a chill down my spine and solidified my belief that whatever I was about to get into had no conceivable way out.
It was a .onion link.
submitted by midniteauth0r
to nosleep [link] [comments]
2018.10.22 23:01 TessaBissolli Kate and the 20 or 30 years dilemma. A working theory of Kate 2nd employer.
Kate’s arc has a big chunk missing, it is evident in the dissonant pieces:
- Is it 20 or 30 years that Kate been Red’s cleaner?
- Why does Kate refers to Red placing Liz as a baby in her arms? Red hired her in 1997, when Liz was 12 years old, 8 years already living with Sam.
- Why Kate says that Red does not remember how she looked with Annie’s body in front of her and Red says he was away then?
- Why Kate acts as if Red cares for Liz but has no rights towards her?
Let us see what the canon shows and what we can deduce from it, and I promise this long ride will be worth your while.
A.- Kate was hired in 1997 by Red. We see the tag when Annie is still alive in a body in the mortuary as 1993. Annie begs her to go back to being a nanny. Kate finds another nanny job, so this is some time later, and then Annie is killed, and later Red hires her. This corresponds to the 2 decades in 2017, so 1997. This 2 decades was told to Red and he did not deny it.
B.- Kate also makes reference to 30 years and to Red putting Liz is her arms as a baby:
Kate to Gale: Raymond thinks he out maneuvered me today, but he underestimated my commitment. I’ve been his cleaner, keeper, and confessor for 30 years, and I’m prepared to tell you everything you need to know in open court.
Kate to Red: I betrayed you for the same reason I just betrayed Nikos– to keep Elizabeth safe, just like you asked me to all those years ago, when you first put her in my arms as a baby girl, only now she has a baby girl of her own, and your existence in their lives puts them in constant danger.
Kate to Red: For the last two decades of my life, you had me convinced I was helping keep Elizabeth safe. But in reality, I was helping you become a monster.
so the roughly 30 years as his cleaner would make circa 1987. Roughly when Kate went to work for Katarina, when Liz is just shy of 1 year old, very early 1986.
C.- The references provided by Kate with her curriculum vitae to Katarina were mostly lies (truths in bold.)
- outstanding references
- fluent in Italian, French, German, and Russian
- work for various diplomatic corps
- attended medical school at Northwestern, yet decided not to continue
- found cadavers compelling
- Master’s degree in Child Development.
- seen seven children through their elementary years. Some of them siblings, of course
- knew how to properly dispose of a body
What is real is what Aram found: shelved in a few addresses in the midwest in her 30s, took jobs in an exclusive domestic agency, and she disappeared in 1991. So by 1993 she was using a different name already. She was a mortuary assistant, no medicine studies and no master in child development.
Probably the medicine was a way to explain her cadaver addiction and the master to make sure she was qualified for the nanny job. When Katarina asked her how many children she had cared for, she said 7, then realized that were too many, and covered it by saying some of them siblings.
But do the math: premed: 4 years, some medical school: 2-3 years, a master degree: 2 years. That is 9 years. Let us say she started at 18 years old, she is 27 by the time she is done. Her fake identity had her born in 1953, and she is about 7-8 when her mother dies in 1962. So she is 27 in 1980. And she comes to work for Katarina in late 1985 to very early 1986.
So between 1980 and 1985 she saw 7 children, some of them siblings, through elementary years? If we break that in 2 families, she spent then 2.5 years with each family. That is not even close to seeing 7 children though elementary years. That CV was a cover story. Someone sent Kate to Katarina.
But Kate thought that Red was the one who put Liz in her arms to protect her AS A BABY. WHY? She knew that Red hired her in 1997, yet she seemed to think that Red was instrumental in placing baby Liz in her care, even if he had not hired her directly, so she speaks of 1987 give or take a bit.
This is the dilemma, and proves to be one of the most interesting topics in The Blacklist and another connecting missing piece. So let us delve into it, taking things in order.
1.- She arrives at the Rostovs in late 1985 to very early 1986 when Liz is less than a year old.
2.- She has been sent by someone to protect Liz. By the time we meet her she thinks this person was Red, and the reason she says she has been his cleaner for 30 years. Because she was sent by someone, provided with a fake background in order to protect Liz and be Katarina’s cleaner. Possibly even to spy on Katarina or to keep her in check.
She then thinks she is a cleaner by proxy of whoever sent her. Presumably she never met him personally, and this man tells her or implies Liz is his child.
3.- Three months after she is hired (circa March 1986), the same day Katarina returns from a trip, Katarina has a loud argument in Russian with a soviet agent in her kitchen. Katarina and the man are fighting to death by the time Kate happens upon the scene, and this fight is pretty even.
Kate throws a knife at Katarina, and then offers to clean up the body. From this incident Kate “deduces” Katarina is soviet intelligence. Since this is NONSENSE, because one kills agents from the OTHER side, then this is just a justification for Kate to know Katarina is a KGB agent. Normally one would deduce that Katarina is CIA or British Intelligence or something of the sort, or at best a double agent who was found out by this other agent and Katarina killed the other agent to keep him quiet.
4.- In 1988, when Liz is about 3 years old, Kate comes upon Katarina in a car in the woods with a man. Kate is troubled by this. Katarina tells her the man was an assignment and is married, and that the affair is serious. Kate asks her if the man is American and even though Katarina skirts the question, Kate assumes he is American. Kate advices her to end it with The American if she does not love him, a question she did not really answer either.
This is an impertinence on Kate’s part, to presume to tell her employer what to do in her private life. But if we think who sent Kate, it makes sense:
If Kate was sent by another man who tells her or implies he is Liz’s father, and this person knows about Rostov but not about this third contender, he will be angry. And since she is truly employed by this man first, she is bound to tell him, putting her in a very difficult position.
5.- in the early Autumn of 1989 Liz is abducted. Katarina tells Kate that a blond man was seen carrying Liz. Kate assumes is The American and Katarina neither accepts or correct her. Then Katarina tells Kate that this man did not take Liz to punish her for ending the affair (going on the assumption that Katarina did as Kate advised her, and this man is the same man in the car, and that she is talking about him, not about a third person). The reason he stole Liz is because this man thinks Liz is his daughter.
When Kate asks if he is her father, she says she has no idea. This is a lie, we know this because she bothered to get a fake paternity test, so she at least knows is not Rostov. But let us keep in Kate’s POV.
So now what Katarina tells Kate is that Katarina has no clue who Liz’s father is. But Kate knows now that there are 3 men that could be the father: The man in the car, whom KATE calls The American; Constantin Rostov, a man she tends to ignore as if he did not exist; and the man who hired her, and who likely told her that Katarina is KGB.
Katarina also tells her that the reasons she never found out is because she was never going to end up with Raymond. So Kate knows that the man Katarina really loved is Raymond.
She insists on going with Katarina. We have assumed this is because she has a superwoman complex, but is it? She may want to stay close to Katarina, to tell her unknown employer when Liz has been recovered from the man she knows as The American.
6.- We lose track of Kate until the night of the fire, likely near mid to late December 1989. Possibly even early 1990. Presumably Kate has been in that motel all this time (over 2 months). Katarina has been presumably gone, Kate probably thought Katarina was looking for Liz.
7.- But what has happened between the time Katarina and Kate leave Canada in the early Fall of 1989 and the fire near mid to late December 1989 or even early 1990? That is a gap of over 2 months.
We catch a glimpse in the Christmas Tree lot memory, which has to happen between those two events. There is a woman heard saying “catch me”, so likely, Katarina found Liz immediately, because Red says Katarina left to be a family with Liz’s father. And Katarina and Liz’s father are playing house. Katarina takes Liz to buy a tree, and is playing catch me with Liz, all happy, while Kate is in the motel, with her little hot plate.
Liz’s father is not the man who hired Kate, and not Rostov. So we know this is Raymond. Red is the man who took Liz from the Summer Palace, which makes sense Red knows why Liz’s father took her. He did.
But Kate likely told her employer that Liz was kidnapped and Katarina is looking for her. And then this employer came to find Liz:
Liz is kidnapped again, from Katarina. This time really by a blond man. HOW DID THE BLOND MAN FIND LIZ?
Kate could be who notifies her unknown first employer that Masha had been abducted by a man who believed to be her father, that Katarina and her are in the area and Katarina is looking for Masha.
Except this man realizes that Katarina is playing some kind of game and finds them, while they are buying a Christmas tree, and he takes Liz with him.
Kate only knows that she notified her employer of Masha’s abductions and Katarina’s efforts to find her. The next thing that happens in Kate's knowledge
, is that Katarina shows up at her motel door hurt, covered in soot.
8.- She is told by Katarina that Liz did something, most likely that she shot someone. This is a pivotal moment. One that we would go over and over.
Remember that Kate has NO idea who had Liz, she thinks it is still The American, but she had been told by Katarina that paternity of Liz is not certain.
Maybe Katarina tells Kate that Liz shot her father. Maybe that she shot Raymond. Katarina tells Liz that it was not her fault, HE was a bad man. The temptation is to think that Katarina is telling Liz that it was not her fault that she shot this man BECAUSE the man was a bad man. But this shot man is not the blond man seen leaving unharmed. So this shot man is Raymond.
But if Katarina were telling Liz that Raymond is a bad man, why would Raymond’s opinion count as to Sam taking Liz? Likely she is saying that what happened is not Liz’s fault, because the other man, the blond father who took her in the tree lot was a bad man.
9.- About 10 days later, Kate is instructed by Katarina to drop Liz with Sam, because “The KGB uncovered my affair with Raymond, which means US Intelligence knows as well. Both sides are tracking me down.”
This is balderdash. A KGB honeytrap cannot explain to her KGB employers why she is sleeping with a known US intelligence officer?
And it continues by assuming that if the KGB knows, then the US intelligence does as well.
She IS being chased by the KGB, but not because of an affair, but because she abandoned her post. And her post is not Rostov. Because all Rostov does is allow her to go in and out of the Soviet Union. If anything Rostov allows her to spy on the USSR. Rostov gives her no access to the US intelligence, he lives in Canada and travels often. So her “post” is her other affair, the third target, the man who kidnapped Liz the second time. A US Army intelligence man who has turned and is providing Katarina with information. The blond man wearing combat boots and a trench coat in the fire.
A man who seems AMAZED that Katarina is spying on him:
Katarina: it was my job
Man: It was your job? To spy on me?
Katarina: Yes, yes. No, I didn’t want to. I-I tried to protect you.
So this is the man who think Katarina and him are on the same side, and cannot believe she is spying on HIM. So since we have realized that probably he is the one who told Kate Katarina was KGB, then this man is her third target, a US military man who is a double agent. The American she writes in her diary she was sent to seduce and betray:
DIARY: Look at me– in love with the man I was sent to seduce and betray. An American. Raymond wants me to run, take Masha and disappear with him, but how could I do that to her?
So Katarina's American and Kate's American are 2 different people.
10.- But Kate tells Sam that Sam is the only one known to and trusted by both Katarina AND Raymond. Which means that at the time Kate had to believe at least that Raymond’s opinion counted as much as Katarina’s. There is not even the idea to go back to Rostov.
11.- Kate is told to disappear by Katarina in 1990, there is no conversation about Rostov, nor about The American or Raymond. Kate meets Annie, goes to Amarillo, works as a mortuary attendant, then switches to a nanny again, and then Annie is killed.
From 1990 to 1994 who is notoriously absent? Raymond Reddington and likely the man whose skeleton was in the bag.
12.- Kate never tells Red that she thought he was dead, when Red sent Sam to summon Kate. Kate told Sam that Red had started a chain of events that took everything form her, so likely she thinks that Red is the man who took Liz from the Summer Palace, but Red is not Liz’s father. Red says that he is caring for Liz out of love for Katarina, not because he is her father. She then likely thinks he is atoning. That is why he tells Hunter Man Red cares deeply for them, but not that he is her father:’
The man you saw in the picture was my employer. He lost his way. At least, that’s how I saw it. He placed a lovely young woman and her baby girl in terrible danger not deliberately, mind you. He loves them deeply. Enough to blind him to the reality that his very presence in their lives constitutes a threat
this corresponds to what Red tells Kate:
I’m not as unknown as you might like to believe, Ms. Nemec. We shared the affection of Katarina. We have a common bond in Elizabeth. I presume your love for the child abides. After Katarina’s sudden departure, I felt a responsibility to watch over the girl from a distance. I’ve provided for her and Sam financially.
At this point, Kate believes that the dead man is the one who had hired her, effectively putting baby Liz in his arms and provided her with the fake background.
13.- At some point, Red asks her assistance in disposing of a man’s remains.
What we KNOW is that the clean bones are chopped to fit in the suitcase, placed in the suitcase as clean bones and buried under a tree carved with a “K” (Katarina, Kirk, Kevin?) in an apple farm
I will bet Kate now assumes or is told that this man is Liz’s father, which he would have been according to Red’s point of view:
It doesn’t matter. She lived at at your house as your daughter on and off for four years. Sometimes you were there, sometimes you weren’t.
Kate assumes it is Liz who killed him, because he does not know about the second kidnapping
. He thinks now that Red is caring for Liz out of love for Katarina, out of guilt towards Liz for taking her believing her to be her father.
Kate is missing a chuck of the story: Bold is what Kate is missing, italic is a lie told to Kate
Liz is kidnapped by Red. Kate and Katarina leave to find her. Kate stays in a motel while Katarina tells her she will search
. Kate tells her unknown second employer what is the situation. Katarina and Red are playing house, being a family. Katarina and Liz are buying a tree when the Kate’s second employer and Katarina’s third target, who knows Liz as Elizabeth kidnaps her again. This man has also stolen the fulcrum. Katarina and Red go to extract Liz, and get the fulcrum as insurance. A fight ensues between Katarina and the third target, Red comes at him, while Liz had grabbed the gun and shoots, intending to hit the blond but hits Red instead. She panics and runs. A fire ensues and all get out, including a very hurt and burned Red. Katarina puts him in the car.
Katarina drops Liz with Kate and tells her that Liz shot her father in a horrible fight with many people and shouting. Kate cares for Liz and eventually drops her with Sam, disappearing. Kate cannot find her second employer, because Red, after healing killed him, or Katarina did (the revenge that makes him lose the light as he tells Ressler)
. But Kate thinks it is because Liz killed him. Red hires her.
The innocence she thinks they are protecting is that Liz killed her father. But Liz shot her father Red, who survived, and Red or Katarina killed this other man, her blond father.
15.- So what Kate did not know is that Cooper was also looking to give Liz the answer to why did Red surrender, by getting an old sample that nobody had tampered with and use it for a paternity test. While Kate, who does not know a bunch of things, does the same by digging a skeleton she thinks will tell Liz why Red surrendered. Kate likely believed that this man was Liz’s father.
Both Harold and Kate knew Red to be Raymond Reddington. Kate did not believe Red was Liz father. Harold knows Red is.
From the very beginning Kate has missed a few things and kept a few secrets, but is Red’s love of secrecy that creates this problem. Red allowing Kate to continue to believe that he is not Liz’s father and that the dead man is Liz’s father, killed by Liz, because he prefers to be the one holding the aces:
Oh, my God, this is why I’m a terrible bridge player. With anyone else, Steve Lyditt would have won the North American pairs. We didn’t even make it through regionals. I abhor working with a partner. Sharing my hand with anyone goes against every instinct I have. But such is life. Here we are….. See, this is why I don’t play well with partners. Don’t fret, Harold. I’m holding all the trumps. I’ll be the declarer, you be the dummy, and we’ll win the hand. Anything else? Good. Let’s begin.
but he never understood what Tom told him in 5.08
Secrets put people in harm’s way.
What was true in the war is not true in a family. Families are built on trust. Tom was family. Liz is family.
submitted by TessaBissolli
to TheBlackList [link] [comments]
2018.07.17 01:46 Chtorrr cat
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigationJump to search This article is about the cat species that is commonly kept as a pet. For the cat family, see Felidae. For other uses, see Cat (disambiguation) and Cats (disambiguation). For technical reasons, "Cat #1" redirects here. For the album, see Cat 1 (album). Domestic cat Cat poster 1.jpg Various types of domestic cat Conservation status Domesticated Scientific classification e Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Carnivora Suborder: Feliformia Family: Felidae Subfamily: Felinae Genus: Felis Species: F. silvestris Subspecies: F. s. catus Trinomial name Felis silvestris catus Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Felis catus (original combination) Felis catus domestica (invalid junior synonym)
The domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus or Felis catus) is a small, typically furry, carnivorous mammal. They are often called house cats when kept as indoor pets or simply cats when there is no need to distinguish them from other felids and felines. They are often valued by humans for companionship and for their ability to hunt vermin. There are more than seventy cat breeds recognized by various cat registries.
Cats are similar in anatomy to the other felids, with a strong flexible body, quick reflexes, sharp retractable claws and teeth adapted to killing small prey. Cat senses fit a crepuscular and predatory ecological niche. Cats can hear sounds too faint or too high in frequency for human ears, such as those made by mice and other small animals. They can see in near darkness. Like most other mammals, cats have poorer color vision and a better sense of smell than humans. Cats, despite being solitary hunters, are a social species, and cat communication includes the use of a variety of vocalizations (mewing, purring, trilling, hissing, growling and grunting) as well as cat pheromones and types of cat-specific body language.
Cats have a high breeding rate. Under controlled breeding, they can be bred and shown as registered pedigree pets, a hobby known as cat fancy. Failure to control the breeding of pet cats by spaying and neutering, as well as the abandonment of former household pets, has resulted in large numbers of feral cats worldwide, requiring population control. In certain areas outside cats' native range, this has contributed, along with habitat destruction and other factors, to the extinction of many bird species. Cats have been known to extirpate a bird species within specific regions and may have contributed to the extinction of isolated island populations. Cats are thought to be primarily responsible for the extinction of 87 species of birds, and the presence of feral and free-ranging cats makes some otherwise suitable locations unsuitable for attempted species reintroduction.
Because cats were venerated in ancient Egypt, they were commonly believed to have been domesticated there, but there may have been instances of domestication as early as the Neolithic from around 9,500 years ago (7500 BC). A genetic study in 2007 concluded that all domestic cats are descended from Near Eastern wildcats, having diverged around 8000 BC in the Middle East. A 2016 study found that leopard cats were undergoing domestication independently in China around 5500 BC, though this line of partially domesticated cats leaves no trace in the domesticated populations of today. A 2017 study confirmed that domestic cats are descendants of those first domesticated by farmers in the Near East around 9,000 years ago.
As of a 2007 study, cats are the second-most popular pet in the U.S. by number of pets owned, behind freshwater fish. In a 2010 study, they were ranked the third-most popular pet in the UK, after fish and dogs, with around 8 million being owned.
Contents 1 Taxonomy and evolution 2 Nomenclature and etymology 3 Biology 3.1 Anatomy 3.2 Physiology 3.2.1 Nutrition 3.3 Senses 3.4 Health 3.4.1 Diseases 3.5 Genetics 4 Behavior 4.1 Sociability 4.2 Communication 4.3 Grooming 4.4 Fighting 4.5 Hunting and feeding 4.6 Running 4.7 Play 4.8 Reproduction 5 Ecology 5.1 Habitats 5.2 Feral cats 5.3 Impact on prey species 5.4 Impact on birds 6 Interaction with humans 6.1 Cat show 6.2 Cat café 6.3 Ailurophobia 6.4 Cat bites 6.5 Infections transmitted from cats to humans 6.6 History and mythology 6.6.1 Superstitions and cat burning 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External links Taxonomy and evolution Main article: Cat evolution The domestic cat is a member of the cat family, the felids, which are a rapidly evolving family of mammals that share a common ancestor only 10–15 million years ago and include lions, tigers, cougars and many others. Within this family, domestic cats (Felis catus) are part of the genus Felis, which is a group of small cats containing about seven species (depending upon classification scheme). Members of the genus are found worldwide and include the jungle cat (Felis chaus) of southeast Asia, European wildcat (F. silvestris silvestris), African wildcat (F. s. lybica), the Chinese mountain cat (F. bieti), and the Arabian sand cat (F. margarita), among others.
The domestic cat is believed to have evolved from the Near Eastern wildcat, whose range covers vast portions of the Middle East westward to the Atlantic coast of Africa. Between 70,000 and 100,000 years ago the animal gave rise to the genetic lineage that eventually produced all domesticated cats, having diverged from the Near Eastern wildcat around 8,000 BC in the Middle East.
The domestic cat was first classified as Felis catus by Carl Linnaeus in the 10th edition of his Systema Naturae published in 1758. Because of modern phylogenetics, domestic cats are usually regarded as another subspecies of the wildcat, F. silvestris. This has resulted in mixed usage of the terms, as the domestic cat can be called by its subspecies name, Felis silvestris catus. Wildcats have also been referred to as various subspecies of F. catus, but in 2003, the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature fixed the name for wildcats as F. silvestris. The most common name in use for the domestic cat remains F. catus. Sometimes, the domestic cat has been called Felis domesticus as proposed by German naturalist J. C. P. Erxleben in 1777, but these are not valid taxonomic names and have been used only rarely in scientific literature. A population of Transcaucasian black feral cats was once classified as Felis daemon (Satunin 1904) but now this population is considered to be a part of the domestic cat.
All the cats in this genus share a common ancestor that is believed to have lived around 6–7 million years ago in the Near East (the Middle East). The exact relationships within the Felidae are close but still uncertain, e.g. the Chinese mountain cat is sometimes classified (under the name Felis silvestris bieti) as a subspecies of the wildcat, like the North African variety F. s. lybica.
Ancient Egyptian sculpture of the cat goddess Bastet. The earliest evidence of felines as Egyptian deities comes from c. 3100 BC. In comparison to dogs, cats have not undergone major changes during the domestication process, as the form and behavior of the domestic cat is not radically different from those of wildcats and domestic cats are perfectly capable of surviving in the wild. Fully domesticated house cats often interbreed with feral F. catus populations, producing hybrids such as the Kellas cat. This limited evolution during domestication means that hybridisation can occur with many other felids, notably the Asian leopard cat. Several natural behaviors and characteristics of wildcats may have predisposed them for domestication as pets. These traits include their small size, social nature, obvious body language, love of play and relatively high intelligence.:12–17 Several small felid species may have an inborn tendency towards tameness.
Cats have either a mutualistic or commensal relationship with humans. Two main theories are given about how cats were domesticated. In one, people deliberately tamed cats in a process of artificial selection as they were useful predators of vermin. This has been criticized as implausible, because the reward for such an effort may have been too little; cats generally do not carry out commands and although they do eat rodents, other species such as ferrets or terriers may be better at controlling these pests. The alternative idea is that cats were simply tolerated by people and gradually diverged from their wild relatives through natural selection, as they adapted to hunting the vermin found around humans in towns and villages.
Nomenclature and etymology The origin of the English word cat (Old English catt) and its counterparts in other Germanic languages (such as German Katze), descended from Proto-Germanic *kattōn-, is controversial. It has traditionally thought to be a borrowing from Late Latin cattus, 'domestic cat', from catta (used around 75 AD by Martial), compare also Byzantine Greek κάττα, Portuguese and Spanish gato, French chat, Maltese qattus, Lithuanian katė, and Old Church Slavonic kotъ (kotka), among others. The Late Latin word is generally thought to originate from an Afro-Asiatic language, but every proposed source word has presented problems. Many references refer to "Berber" (Kabyle) kaddîska, 'wildcat', and Nubian kadīs as possible sources or cognates, but M. Lionel Bender suggesets the Nubian term is a loan from Arabic قِطَّة qiṭṭa. Jean-Paul Savignac suggests the Latin word is from an Ancient Egyptian precursor of Coptic ϣⲁⲩ šau, 'tomcat', or its feminine form suffixed with -t, but John Huehnergard says "the source [...] was clearly not Egyptian itself, where no analogous form is attested." Huehnergard opines it is "equally likely that the forms might derive from an ancient Germanic word, imported into Latin and thence to Greek and to Syriac and Arabic". Guus Kroonen also considers the word to be native to Germanic (due to morphological alternations) and Northern Europe, and suggests that it might ultimately be borrowed from Uralic, cf. Northern Sami gađfe, 'female stoat', and Hungarian hölgy, 'stoat'; from Proto-Uralic *käďwä, 'female (of a furred animal)'. In any case, cat is a classic example of a Wanderwort.
An alternative word is English puss (extended as pussy and pussycat). Attested only from the 16th century, it may have been introduced from Dutch poes or from Low German puuskatte, related to Swedish kattepus, or Norwegian pus, pusekatt. Similar forms exist in Lithuanian puižė and Irish puisín or puiscín. The etymology of this word is unknown, but it may have simply arisen from a sound used to attract a cat.
A group of cats can be referred to as a clowder or a glaring; a male cat is called a tom or tomcat (or a gib, if neutered); an unspayed female is called a queen, especially in a cat-breeding context; and a juvenile cat is referred to as a kitten. The male progenitor of a cat, especially a pedigreed cat, is its sire, and its mother is its dam In Early Modern English, the word kitten was interchangeable with the now obsolete word catling.
A pedigreed cat is one whose ancestry is recorded by a cat fancier organization. A purebred (or pure-bred) cat is one whose ancestry contains only individuals of the same breed. Many pedigreed and especially purebred cats are exhibited as show cats. Cats of unrecorded, mixed ancestry are referred to as domestic short-haired or domestic long-haired cats (by coat type), or commonly as random-bred, moggies (chiefly British), or (using terms borrowed from dog breeding) mongrels or mutt-cats.
While the African wildcat is the ancestral subspecies from which domestic cats are descended, and wildcats and domestic cats can completely interbreed (being subspecies of the same species), several intermediate stages occur between domestic pet and pedigree cats on one hand and entirely wild animals on the other. The semi-feral cat, a mostly outdoor cat, is not owned by any one individual, but is generally friendly to people and may be fed by several households. Truly feral cats are associated with human habitation areas, foraging for food and sometimes intermittently fed by people, but are typically wary of human interaction.
Biology Anatomy Main article: Cat anatomy
Diagram of the general anatomy of a male Domestic cats are similar in size to the other members of the genus Felis, typically weighing between 4 and 5 kg (9 and 10 lb). Some breeds, such as the Maine Coon, can occasionally exceed 11 kg (24 lb). Conversely, very small cats, less than 2 kg (4 lb), have been reported. The world record for the largest cat is 21 kg (50 lb).[self-published source] The smallest adult cat ever officially recorded weighed around 1 kg (2 lb). Feral cats tend to be lighter, as they have more limited access to food than house cats. The Boston Cat Hospital weighted trapped feral cats, and found the average feral adult male to weigh 4 kg (9 lb), and average adult female 3 kg (7 lb). Cats average about 23–25 cm (9–10 in) in height and 46 cm (18 in) in head/body length (males being larger than females), with tails averaging 30 cm (12 in) in length; feral cats may be smaller on average.
Cats have seven cervical vertebrae, as do almost all mammals; 13 thoracic vertebrae (humans have 12); seven lumbar vertebrae (humans have five); three sacral vertebrae like most mammals (humans have five); and a variable number of caudal vertebrae in the tail (humans have only vestigial caudal vertebrae, fused into an internal coccyx).:11 The extra lumbar and thoracic vertebrae account for the cat's spinal mobility and flexibility. Attached to the spine are 13 ribs, the shoulder, and the pelvis. :16 Unlike human arms, cat forelimbs are attached to the shoulder by free-floating clavicle bones which allow them to pass their body through any space into which they can fit their head.
Cat skull The cat skull is unusual among mammals in having very large eye sockets and a powerful and specialized jaw.:35 Within the jaw, cats have teeth adapted for killing prey and tearing meat. When it overpowers its prey, a cat delivers a lethal neck bite with its two long canine teeth, inserting them between two of the prey's vertebrae and severing its spinal cord, causing irreversible paralysis and death. Compared to other felines, domestic cats have narrowly spaced canine teeth, which is an adaptation to their preferred prey of small rodents, which have small vertebrae. The premolar and first molar together compose the carnassial pair on each side of the mouth, which efficiently shears meat into small pieces, like a pair of scissors. These are vital in feeding, since cats' small molars cannot chew food effectively, and cats are largely incapable of mastication.:37 Although cats tend to have better teeth than most humans, with decay generally less likely because of a thicker protective layer of enamel, a less damaging saliva, less retention of food particles between teeth, and a diet mostly devoid of sugar, they are nonetheless subject to occasional tooth loss and infection.
Cats, like dogs, are digitigrades. They walk directly on their toes, with the bones of their feet making up the lower part of the visible leg. Cats are capable of walking very precisely because, like all felines, they directly register; that is, they place each hind paw (almost) directly in the print of the corresponding fore paw, minimizing noise and visible tracks. This also provides sure footing for their hind paws when they navigate rough terrain. Unlike most mammals, when cats walk, they use a "pacing" gait; that is, they move the two legs on one side of the body before the legs on the other side. This trait is shared with camels and giraffes. As a walk speeds up into a trot, a cat's gait changes to be a "diagonal" gait, similar to that of most other mammals (and many other land animals, such as lizards): the diagonally opposite hind and fore legs move simultaneously.
Like almost all members of the Felidae, cats have protractable and retractable claws. In their normal, relaxed position, the claws are sheathed with the skin and fur around the paw's toe pads. This keeps the claws sharp by preventing wear from contact with the ground and allows the silent stalking of prey. The claws on the fore feet are typically sharper than those on the hind feet. Cats can voluntarily extend their claws on one or more paws. They may extend their claws in hunting or self-defense, climbing, kneading, or for extra traction on soft surfaces. Most cats have five claws on their front paws, and four on their rear paws. The fifth front claw (the dewclaw) is proximal to the other claws. More proximally is a protrusion which appears to be a sixth "finger". This special feature of the front paws, on the inside of the wrists, is the carpal pad, also found on the paws of big cats and dogs. It has no function in normal walking, but is thought to be an antiskidding device used while jumping. Some breeds of cats are prone to polydactyly (extra toes and claws). These are particularly common along the northeast coast of North America.
Physiology Cats are familiar and easily kept animals, and their physiology has been particularly well studied; it generally resembles those of other carnivorous mammals, but displays several unusual features probably attributable to cats' descent from desert-dwelling species. For instance, cats are able to tolerate quite high temperatures: Humans generally start to feel uncomfortable when their skin temperature passes about 38 °C (100 °F), but cats show no discomfort until their skin reaches around 52 °C (126 °F),:46 and can tolerate temperatures of up to 56 °C (133 °F) if they have access to water.
Normal physiological values:330 Body temperature 38.6 °C (101.5 °F) Heart rate 120–140 beats per minute Breathing rate 16–40 breaths per minute
Thermograph of various body parts of a cat Cats conserve heat by reducing the flow of blood to their skin and lose heat by evaporation through their mouths. Cats have minimal ability to sweat, with glands located primarily in their paw pads, and pant for heat relief only at very high temperatures (but may also pant when stressed). A cat's body temperature does not vary throughout the day; this is part of cats' general lack of circadian rhythms and may reflect their tendency to be active both during the day and at night.:1 Cats' feces are comparatively dry and their urine is highly concentrated, both of which are adaptations to allow cats to retain as much water as possible. Their kidneys are so efficient, they can survive on a diet consisting only of meat, with no additional water, and can even rehydrate by drinking seawater.:29While domestic cats are able to swim, they are generally reluctant to enter water as it quickly leads to exhaustion.
Nutrition Cats are obligate carnivores: their physiology has evolved to efficiently process meat, and they have difficulty digesting plant matter. In contrast to omnivores such as rats, which only require about 4% protein in their diet, about 20% of a cat's diet must be protein. A cat's gastrointestinal tract is adapted to meat eating, being much shorter than that of omnivores and having low levels of several of the digestive enzymes needed to digest carbohydrates. These traits severely limit the cat's ability to digest and use plant-derived nutrients, as well as certain fatty acids. Despite the cat's meat-oriented physiology, several vegetarian or vegan cat foods have been marketed that are supplemented with chemically synthesized taurine and other nutrients, in attempts to produce a complete diet. However, some of these products still fail to provide all the nutrients cats require, and diets containing no animal products pose the risk of causing severe nutritional deficiencies. However, veterinarians in the United States have expressed concern that many domestic cats are overfed.
Cats do eat grass occasionally. A proposed explanation is that cats use grass as a source of folic acid. Another is that it is used to supply dietary fiber, helping the cat defecate more easily and expel parasites and other harmful material through feces and vomit.
Cats are unusually dependent on a constant supply of the amino acid arginine, and a diet lacking arginine causes marked weight loss and can be rapidly fatal. Arginine is an essential additive in cat food because cats have low levels of the enzymes aminotransferase and pyrroline-5-carboxylate which are responsible for the synthesis of ornithine and citrulline in the small intestine. Citrulline would typically go on to the kidneys to make arginine, but because cats have a deficiency in the enzymes that make it, citrulline is not produced in adequate quantities to make arginine. Arginine is essential in the urea cycle in order to convert the toxic component ammonia into urea that can then be excreted in the urine. Because of its essential role, deficiency in arginine results in a build up of toxic ammonia and leads to hyperammonemia. The symptoms of hyperammonemia include lethargy, vomiting, ataxia, hyperesthesia and can be serious enough to induce death and coma in a matter of days if a cat is being fed an arginine-free diet. The quick onset of these symptoms is due to the fact that diets devoid in arginine will typically still contain all of the other amino acids, which will continue to be catabolized by the body, producing mass amounts of ammonia that very quickly build up with no way of being excreted.
Another unusual feature is that the cat cannot produce taurine,[note 1] with a deficiency in this nutrient causing macular degeneration, wherein the cat's retina slowly breaks down, causing irreversible blindness. This is due to the hepatic activity of cystinesulfinic acid decarboxylase being low in cats. This limits the ability of cats to biosynthesize the taurine they need from its precursor, the amino acid cysteine, which ultimately results in inadequate taurine production needed for normal function. Deficiencies in taurine result in compensated function of feline cardiovascular and reproductive systems. These abnormalities can also be accompanied by developmental issues in the central nervous system along with degeneration of the retina.
In order to produce the essential vitamin niacin for use in the cat, tryptophan is needed for conversion purposes. However, due to a competing pathway with acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), niacin can become deficient and require supplementation. This process occurs when an overactive enzyme, picolinic acid carboxylase, converts the vitamin B6 precursor picolinic acid into the alternate compound acetyl-CoA, instead of converting quinolinate into nictotinic acid mononlucleotide (niacin). Niacin is required in cats as it supports enzyme function. If niacin is deficient in the diet, anorexia, weight loss and an increase in body temperature can result.
Preformed vitamin A is required in the cat for retinal and reproductive health. Vitamin A is considered to be a fat-soluble vitamin and is seen as essential in a cat's diet. Normally, the conversion of beta-carotenes into vitamin A occurs in the intestine (more specifically the mucosal layer) of species, however cats lack the ability to undergo this process. Both the kidney and liver are contributors to the use of vitamin A in the body of the majority of species while the cats liver does not produce the enzyme Beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase which converts the beta-carotene into retinol (vitamin A). To summarize: cats do not have high levels of this enzyme leading to the cleavage and oxidation of carotenoids not taking place.
Vitamin D3 is a dietary requirement for cats as they lack the ability to synthesize vitamin D3 from sunlight. Cats obtain high levels of the enzyme 7-dehydrocholestrol delta 7 reductase which causes immediate conversion of vitamin D3 from sunlight to 7-dehydrocholesterol. This fat soluble vitamin is required in cats for bone formation through the promotion of calcium retention, along with nerve and muscle control through absorption of calcium and phosphorus.
Cats, like all mammals, need to get linoleic acid, an essential fatty acid, from their diet. Most mammals can convert linoleic acid to arachidonic acid, as well as the omega 3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) through the activity of enzymes, but this process is very limited in cats. The Δ6-desaturase enzyme eventually converts linoleic acid, which is in its salt form linoleate, to arachidonate (salt form of arachidonic acid) in the liver, but this enzyme has very little activity in cats. This means that arachidonic acid is an essential fatty acid for cats as they lack the ability to create required amounts of linoleic acid. Deficiency of arachidonic acid in cats is related to problems in growth, can cause injury and inflammation to skin (e.g. around the mouth) decreased platelet aggregation, fatty liver, increase in birth defects of kittens whose queens were deficient during pregnancy, and reproductive failure in queens. Arachidonic acid can also be metabolized to eicosanoids that create inflammatory responses which are needed to stimulate proper growth and repair mechanisms in the cat.
Cat food § Nutrient chart provides a list of the many nutrients cats require as well as the use of the nutrients in the body and the effects of the deficiency.
Senses Main article: Cat senses
Reflection of camera flash from the tapetum lucidum Cats have excellent night vision and can see at only one-sixth the light level required for human vision.:43 This is partly the result of cat eyes having a tapetum lucidum, which reflects any light that passes through the retina back into the eye, thereby increasing the eye's sensitivity to dim light. Another adaptation to dim light is the large pupils of cats' eyes. Unlike some big cats, such as tigers, domestic cats have slit pupils. These slit pupils can focus bright light without chromatic aberration, and are needed since the domestic cat's pupils are much larger, relative to their eyes, than the pupils of the big cats. At low light levels, a cat's pupils will expand to cover most of the exposed surface of its eyes. However, domestic cats have rather poor color vision and (like most nonprimate mammals) have only two types of cones, optimized for sensitivity to blue and yellowish green; they have limited ability to distinguish between red and green. A 1993 paper reported a response to middle wavelengths from a system other than the rods which might be due to a third type of cone. However, this appears to be an adaptation to low light levels rather than representing true trichromatic vision.
Cats have excellent hearing and can detect an extremely broad range of frequencies. They can hear higher-pitched sounds than either dogs or humans, detecting frequencies from 55 Hz to 79,000 Hz, a range of 10.5 octaves, while humans and dogs both have ranges of about 9 octaves. Cats can hear ultrasound, which is important in hunting because many species of rodents make ultrasonic calls. However, they do not communicate using ultrasound like rodents do. Cats' hearing is also sensitive and among the best of any mammal, being most acute in the range of 500 Hz to 32 kHz. This sensitivity is further enhanced by the cat's large movable outer ears (their pinnae), which both amplify sounds and help detect the direction of a noise.
Cats have an acute sense of smell, due in part to their well-developed olfactory bulb and a large surface of olfactory mucosa, about 5.8 cm2 (0.90 in2) in area, which is about twice that of humans. Cats are sensitive to pheromones such as 3-mercapto-3-methylbutan-1-ol, which they use to communicate through urine spraying and marking with scent glands. Many cats also respond strongly to plants that contain nepetalactone, especially catnip, as they can detect that substance at less than one part per billion. About 70–80% of cats are affected by nepetalactone. This response is also produced by other plants, such as silver vine (Actinidia polygama) and the herb valerian; it may be caused by the smell of these plants mimicking a pheromone and stimulating cats' social or sexual behaviors.
Cats have relatively few taste buds compared to humans (470 or so versus more than 9,000 on the human tongue). Domestic and wild cats share a gene mutation that keeps their sweet taste buds from binding to sugary molecules, leaving them with no ability to taste sweetness. Their taste buds instead respond to acids, amino acids like protein, and bitter tastes. Cats and many other animals have a Jacobson's organ in their mouths that is used in the behavioral process of flehmening. It allows them to sense certain aromas in a way that humans cannot. Cats also have a distinct temperature preference for their food, preferring food with a temperature around 38 °C (100 °F) which is similar to that of a fresh kill and routinely rejecting food presented cold or refrigerated (which would signal to the cat that the "prey" item is long dead and therefore possibly toxic or decomposing).
The whiskers of a cat are highly sensitive to touch. To aid with navigation and sensation, cats have dozens of movable whiskers (vibrissae) over their body, especially their faces. These provide information on the width of gaps and on the location of objects in the dark, both by touching objects directly and by sensing air currents; they also trigger protective blink reflexes to protect the eyes from damage.:47
File:BIOASTRONAUTICS RESEARCH Gov.archives.arc.68700.ogv Comparison of cat righting reflexes in gravity versus zero gravity Most breeds of cat have a noted fondness for settling in high places, or perching. In the wild, a higher place may serve as a concealed site from which to hunt; domestic cats may strike prey by pouncing from a perch such as a tree branch, as does a leopard. Another possible explanation is that height gives the cat a better observation point, allowing it to survey its territory. During a fall from a high place, a cat can reflexively twist its body and right itself using its acute sense of balance and flexibility. This is known as the cat righting reflex. An individual cat always rights itself in the same way, provided it has the time to do so, during a fall. The height required for this to occur is around 90 cm (3.0 ft). Cats without a tail (e.g. many specimens of the Manx and Cymric breeds) also have this ability, since a cat mostly relies on leg movement and conservation of angular momentum to set up for landing, and the tail is little used for this feat. Their excellent sense of balance allows cats to move with great stability. A cat falling from heights of up to 3 meters can right itself and land on its paws.
Health Main articles: Cat health and Aging in cats The average lifespan of pet cats has risen in recent years. In the early 1980s, it was about seven years,:33 rising to 9.4 years in 1995:33 and 15.1 years in 2018. However, cats have been reported as surviving into their 30s, with the oldest known cat, Creme Puff, dying at a verified age of 38.
Spaying or neutering increases life expectancy: one study found neutered male cats live twice as long as intact males, while spayed female cats live 62% longer than intact females.:35 Having a cat neutered confers health benefits, because castrated males cannot develop testicular cancer, spayed females cannot develop uterine or ovarian cancer, and both have a reduced risk of mammary cancer.
Despite widespread concern about the welfare of free-roaming cats, the lifespans of neutered feral cats in managed colonies compare favorably with those of pet cats.:45:1358 
Diseases Main article: Feline diseases A wide range of health problems may affect cats, including infectious diseases, parasites, injuries, and chronic disease. Vaccinations are available for many of these diseases, and domestic cats are regularly given treatments to eliminate parasites such as worms and fleas.
Genetics Main article: Cat genetics The domesticated cat and its closest wild ancestor are both diploid organisms that possess 38 chromosomes and roughly 20,000 genes. About 250 heritable genetic disorders have been identified in cats, many similar to human inborn errors. The high level of similarity among the metabolism of mammals allows many of these feline diseases to be diagnosed using genetic tests that were originally developed for use in humans, as well as the use of cats as animal models in the study of the human diseases.
Behavior See also: Cat behavior and Cat intelligence A black-and-white cat on a fence A cat on a fence Outdoor cats are active both day and night, although they tend to be slightly more active at night. The timing of cats' activity is quite flexible and varied, which means house cats may be more active in the morning and evening, as a response to greater human activity at these times. Although they spend the majority of their time in the vicinity of their home, housecats can range many hundreds of meters from this central point, and are known to establish territories that vary considerably in size, in one study ranging from 7 to 28 hectares (17–69 acres).
Cats conserve energy by sleeping more than most animals, especially as they grow older. The daily duration of sleep varies, usually between 12 and 16 hours, with 13 and 14 being the average. Some cats can sleep as much as 20 hours. The term "cat nap" for a short rest refers to the cat's tendency to fall asleep (lightly) for a brief period. While asleep, cats experience short periods of rapid eye movement sleep often accompanied by muscle twitches, which suggests they are dreaming.
Social grooming Although wildcats are solitary, the social behavior of domestic cats is much more variable and ranges from widely dispersed individuals to feral cat colonies that gather around a food source, based on groups of co-operating females. Within such groups, one cat is usually dominant over the others. Each cat in a colony holds a distinct territory, with sexually active males having the largest territories, which are about 10 times larger than those of female cats and may overlap with several females' territories. These territories are marked by urine spraying, by rubbing objects at head height with secretions from facial glands, and by defecation. Between these territories are neutral areas where cats watch and greet one another without territorial conflicts. Outside these neutral areas, territory holders usually chase away stranger cats, at first by staring, hissing, and growling, and if that does not work, by short but noisy and violent attacks. Despite some cats cohabiting in colonies, they do not have a social survival strategy, or a pack mentality, and always hunt alone.
Cat with an Alaskan Malamute dog However, some pet cats are poorly socialized. In particular, older cats may show aggressiveness towards newly arrived kittens, which may include biting and scratching; this type of behavior is known as feline asocial aggression.
Though cats and dogs are often characterized as natural enemies, they can live together if correctly socialized.
Life in proximity to humans and other domestic animals has led to a symbiotic social adaptation in cats, and cats may express great affection toward humans or other animals. Ethologically, the human keeper of a cat may function as a sort of surrogate for the cat's mother, and adult housecats live their lives in a kind of extended kittenhood, a form of behavioral neoteny. The high-pitched sounds housecats make to solicit food may mimic the cries of a hungry human infant, making them particularly hard for humans to ignore.
Domestic cats' scent rubbing behavior towards humans or other cats is thought to be a feline means for social bonding.
Communication Main article: Cat communication Domestic cats use many vocalizations for communication, including purring, trilling, hissing, growling/snarling, grunting, and several different forms of meowing. (By contrast, feral cats are generally silent.):208 Their types of body language, including position of ears and tail, relaxation of the whole body, and kneading of the paws, are all indicators of mood. The tail and ears are particularly important social signal mechanisms in cats; for example, a raised tail acts as a friendly greeting, and flattened ears indicates hostility. Tail-raising also indicates the cat's position in the group's social hierarchy, with dominant individuals raising their tails less often than subordinate animals. Nose-to-nose touching is also a common greeting and may be followed by social grooming, which is solicited by one of the cats raising and tilting its head.
Purring may have developed as an evolutionary advantage as a signalling mechanism of reassurance between mother cats and nursing kittens. Post-nursing cats often purr as a sign of contentment: when being petted, becoming relaxed, or eating. The mechanism by which cats purr is elusive. The cat has no unique anatomical feature that is clearly responsible for the sound. It was, until recent times, believed that only the cats of the Felis genus could purr. However, felids of the genus Panthera (tiger, lion, jaguar, and leopard) also produce non-continuous sounds, called chuffs, similar to purring, but only when exhaling.
The hooked papillae on a cat's tongue act like a hairbrush to help clean and detangle fur. File:Housecat Grooming Itself.webm A tabby housecat uses its brush-like tongue to groom itself, licking its fur to straighten it. Cats are known for spending considerable amounts of time licking their coat to keep it clean. The cat's tongue has backwards-facing spines about 500 μm long, which are called papillae. These contain keratin which makes them rigid so the papillae act like a hairbrush. Some cats, particularly longhaired cats, occasionally regurgitate hairballs of fur that have collected in their stomachs from grooming. These clumps of fur are usually sausage-shaped and about 2–3 cm (0.8–1.2 in) long. Hairballs can be prevented with remedies that ease elimination of the hair through the gut, as well as regular grooming of the coat with a comb or stiff brush.
Fighting Among domestic cats, males are more likely to fight than females. Among feral cats, the most common reason for cat fighting is competition between two males to mate with a female. In such cases, most fights are won by the heavier male. Another common reason for fighting in domestic cats is the difficulty of establishing territories within a small home. Female cats also fight over territory or to defend their kittens. Neutering will decrease or eliminate this behavior in many cases, suggesting that the behavior is linked to sex hormones.
An arched back, raised fur and an open-mouthed hiss can all be signs of aggression in a domestic cat. When cats become aggressive, they try to make themselves appear larger and more threatening by raising their fur, arching their backs, turning sideways and hissing or spitting. Often, the ears are pointed down and back to avoid damage to the inner ear and potentially listen for any changes behind them while focused forward. They may also vocalize loudly and bare their teeth in an effort to further intimidate their opponent. Fights usually consist of grappling and delivering powerful slaps to the face and body with the forepaws as well as bites. Cats also throw themselves to the ground in a defensive posture to rake their opponent's belly with their powerful hind legs.
Serious damage is rare, as the fights are usually short in duration, with the loser running away with little more than a few scratches to the face and ears. However, fights for mating rights are typically more severe and injuries may include deep puncture wounds and lacerations. Normally, serious injuries from fighting are limited to infections of scratches and bites, though these can occasionally kill cats if untreated. In addition, bites are probably the main route of transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus. Sexually active males are usually involved in many fights during their lives, and often have decidedly battered faces with obvious scars and cuts to their ears and nose.
Hunting and feeding
A cat that is playing with a caught mouse. Cats play with their prey to weaken or exhaust them before making a kill.
A domestic cat with its prey Cats hunt small prey, primarily birds and rodents, and are often used as a form of pest control. Domestic cats are a major predator of wildlife in the United States, killing an estimated 1.4 to 3.7 billion birds and 6.9 to 20.7 billion mammals annually. The bulk of predation in the United States is done by 80 million feral and stray cats. Effective measures to reduce this population are elusive, meeting opposition from cat enthusiasts. In the case of free-ranging pets, equipping cats with bells and not letting them out at night will reduce wildlife predation.
Free-fed feral cats and house cats tend to consume many small meals in a single day, although the frequency and size of meals varies between individuals. Cats use two hunting strategies, either stalking prey actively, or waiting in ambush until an animal comes close enough to be captured. Although it is not certain, the strategy used may depend on the prey species in the area, with cats waiting in ambush outside burrows, but tending to actively stalk birds.:153
Perhaps the best known element of cats' hunting behavior, which is commonly misunderstood and often appalls cat owners because it looks like torture, is that cats often appear to "play" with prey by releasing it after capture. This behavior is due to an instinctive imperative to ensure that the prey is weak enough to be killed without endangering the cat. This behavior is referred to in the idiom "cat-and-mouse game" or simply "cat and mouse".
Another poorly understood element of cat hunting behavior is the presentation of prey to human guardians. Ethologist Paul Leyhausen proposed that cats adopt humans into their social group and share excess kill with others in the group according to the dominance hierarchy, in which humans are reacted to as if they are at, or near, the top. Anthropologist and zoologist Desmond Morris, in his 1986 book Catwatching, suggests, when cats bring home mice or birds, they are attempting to teach their human to hunt, or trying to help their human as if feeding "an elderly cat, or an inept kitten". Morris's hypothesis is inconsistent with the fact that male cats also bring home prey, despite males having negligible involvement with raising kittens.:153
Domestic cats select food based on its temperature, smell and texture; they dislike chilled foods and respond most strongly to moist foods rich in amino acids, which are similar to meat. Cats may reject novel flavors (a response termed neophobia) and learn quickly to avoid foods that have tasted unpleasant in the past. They may also avoid sugary foods and milk. Most adult cats are lactose intolerant; the sugars in milk are not easily digested and may cause soft stools or diarrhea. They can also develop odd eating habits. Some cats like to eat or chew on other things, most commonly wool, but also plastic, cables, paper, string, aluminum foil, or even coal. This condition, pica, can threaten their health, depending on the amount and toxicity of the items eaten.
Though cats usually prey on animals less than half their size, a feral cat in Australia has been photographed killing an adult pademelon of around the cat's weight at 4 kg (8.8 lb).
Since cats lack sufficient lips to create suction, they use a lapping method with the tongue to draw liquid upwards into their mouths. Lapping at a rate of four times a second, the cat touches the smooth tip of its tongue to the surface of the water, and quickly retracts it like a corkscrew, drawing water upwards.
Running A veterinarian and columnist for Mercola Healthy Pets, Karen Shaw Becker, has compiled a list of the fastest and most athletic cat breeds. First is the Egyptian Mau, which can clock up to 30 miles per hour, faster than any other domestic cat breed in the world.[unreliable source] In descending order, Becker lists the other swift domestic cats: the Abyssinian cat, the Somali cat, the Bengal cat, the Savannah cat, the Manx cat ("He can jump and accelerate through the house like there's no tomorrow. Watch for his sharp turns and quick stops – you'll think he's a mini sports car in the shape of a cat."), the Siamese cat, the Ocicat, and the Oriental Shorthair.
The average house cat can outspeed the average house dog (excluding those born to run and race, such as the greyhound and the cheetah), but they excel at sprinting, not at long-distance running.
Play Main article: Cat play and toys File:Play fight between cats.webmhd.webm Play fight between kittens, age 14 weeks Domestic cats, especially young kittens, are known for their love of play. This behavior mimics hunting and is important in helping kittens learn to stalk, capture, and kill prey. Cats also engage in play fighting, with each other and with humans. This behavior may be a way for cats to practice the skills needed for real combat, and might also reduce any fear they associate with launching attacks on other animals.
Owing to the close similarity between play and hunting, cats prefer to play with objects that resemble prey, such as small furry toys that move rapidly, but rapidly lose interest (they become habituated) in a toy they have played with before. Cats also tend to play with toys more when they are hungry. String is often used as a toy, but if it is eaten, it can become caught at the base of the cat's tongue and then move into the intestines, a medical emergency which can cause serious illness, even death. Owing to the risks posed by cats eating string, it is sometimes replaced with a laser pointer's dot, which cats may chase.
Reproduction See also: Kitten
When cats mate, the tomcat (male) bites the scruff of the female's neck as she assumes a position conducive to mating known as lordosis behavior.
Radiography of a pregnant cat (about one month and a half) Female cats are seasonally polyestrous, which means they may have many periods of heat over the course of a year, the season beginning in spring and ending in late autumn. Heat periods occur about every two weeks and last about 4 to 7 days. Multiple males will be attracted to a female in heat. The males will fight over her, and the victor wins the right to mate. At first, the female rejects the male, but eventually the female allows the male to mate. The female utters a loud yowl as the male pulls out of her because a male cat's penis has a band of about 120–150 backwards-pointing penile spines, which are about 1 mm long; upon withdrawal of the penis, the spines rake the walls of the female's vagina, which acts to induce ovulation. This act also occurs to clear the vagina of other sperm in the context of a second (or more) mating, thus giving the later males a larger chance of conception.
After mating, the female washes her vulva thoroughly. If a male attempts to mate with her at this point, the female will attack him. After about 20 to 30 minutes, once the female is finished grooming, the cycle will repeat.
Because ovulation is not always triggered by a single mating, females may not be impregnated by the first male with which they mate. Furthermore, cats are superfecund; that is, a female may mate with more than one male when she is in heat, with the result that different kittens in a litter may have different fathers.
A newborn kitten At 124 hours after conception, the morula forms. At 148 hours, early blastocysts form. At 10–12 days, implantation occurs.
The gestation period for cats is between 64 and 67 days, with an average of 66 days. The size of a litter usually is three to five kittens, with the first litter usually smaller than subsequent litters. Kittens are weaned between six and seven weeks old, and cats normally reach sexual maturity at 5–10 months (females) and to 5–7 months (males), although this can vary depending on breed. Females can have two to three litters per year, so may produce up to 150 kittens in their breeding span of around ten years.
Cats are ready to go to new homes at about 12 weeks of age, when they are ready to leave their mother. They can be surgically sterilized (spayed or castrated) as early as 7 weeks to limit unwanted reproduction. This surgery also prevents undesirable sex-related behavior, such as aggression, territory marking (spraying urine) in males and yowling (calling) in females. Traditionally, this surgery was performed at around six to nine months of age, but it is increasingly being performed before puberty, at about three to six months. In the US, about 80% of household cats are neutered.
A cat in snowy weather Cats are a cosmopolitan species and are found across much of the world. Geneticist Stephen James O'Brien, of the National Cancer Institute in Frederick, Maryland, remarked on how successful cats have been in evolutionary terms: "Cats are one of evolution's most charismatic creatures. They can live on the highest mountains and in the hottest deserts." They are extremely adaptable and are now present on all continents except Antarctica, and on 118 of the 131 main groups of islands—even on isolated islands such as the Kerguelen Islands.
Feral cats can live in forests, grasslands, tundra, coastal areas, agricultural land, scrublands, urban areas, and wetlands. Their habitats even include small oceanic islands with no human inhabitants. Further, the close relatives of domestic cats, the African wildcat (Felis silvestris lybica) and the Arabian sand cat (Felis margarita) both inhabit desert environments, and domestic cats still show similar adaptations and behaviors. The cat's ability to thrive in almost any terrestrial habitat has led to its designation as one of the world's worst invasive species.
As domestic cats are little altered from wildcats, they can readily interbreed. This hybridization poses a danger to the genetic distinctiveness of some wildcat populations, particularly in Scotland and Hungary and possibly also the Iberian Peninsula.
Feral cats Main article: Feral cat
Feral farm cat Feral cats are domestic cats that were born in or have reverted to a wild state. They are unfamiliar with and wary of humans and roam freely in urban and rural areas. The numbers of feral cats is not known, but estimates of the US feral population range from 25 to 60 million. Feral cats may live alone, but most are found in large colonies, which occupy a specific territory and are usually associated with a source of food. Famous feral cat colonies are found in Rome around the Colosseum and Forum Romanum, with cats at some of these sites being fed and given medical attention by volunteers.
Public attitudes towards feral cats vary widely, ranging from seeing them as free-ranging pets, to regarding them as vermin. One common approach to reducing the feral cat population is termed 'trap-neuter-return', where the cats are trapped, neutered, immunized against diseases such as rabies and the feline Panleukopenia and Leukemia viruses, and then released. Before releasing them back into their feral colonies, the attending veterinarian often nips the tip off one ear to mark it as neutered and inoculated, since these cats may be trapped again. Volunteers continue to feed and give care to these cats throughout their lives. Given this support, their lifespans are increased, and behavior and nuisance problems caused by competition for food are reduced.
Impact on prey species
Carrying half of a rabbit To date, little scientific data is available to assess the impact of cat predation on prey populations outside of agricultural situations. Even well-fed domestic cats may hunt and kill, mainly catching small mammals, but also birds, amphibians, reptiles, fish, and invertebrates. Hunting by domestic cats may be contributing to the decline in the numbers of birds in urban areas, although the importance of this effect remains controversial. In the wild, the introduction of feral cats during human settlement can threaten native species with extinction. In many cases, controlling or eliminating the populations of non-native cats can produce a rapid recovery in native animals. However, the ecological role of introduced cats can be more complicated. For example, cats can control the numbers of rats, which also prey on birds' eggs and young, so a cat population can protect an endangered bird species by suppressing mesopredators.
In isolated landmasses, such as Australasia, there are often no other native, medium-sized quadrupedal predators (including other feline species); this tends to exacerbate the impact of feral cats on small native animals. Native species such as the New Zealand kakapo and the Australian bettong, for example, tend to be more ecologically vulnerable and behaviorally "naive", when faced with predation by cats. Feral cats have had a major impact on these native species and have played a leading role in the endangerment and extinction of many animals.
Even in places with ancient and numerous cat populations, such as Western Europe, cats appear to be growing in number and independently of their environments' carrying capacity (such as the numbers of prey available). This may be explained, at least in part, by an abundance of food, from sources including feeding by pet owners and scavenging. For instance, research in Britain suggests that a high proportion of cats hunt only "recreationally", and in South Sweden, where research in 1982 found that the population density of cats was as high as 2,000 per square kilometre (5,200/sq mi).
In agricultural settings, cats can be effective at keeping mouse and rat populations low, but only if rodent harborage locations are kept under control. While cats are effective at preventing rodent population explosions, they are not effective for eliminating pre-existing severe infestations.
Impact on birds
A black cat eating a house sparrow The domestic cat is a significant predator of birds. UK assessments indicate they may be accountable for an estimated 64.8 million bird deaths each year. A 2012 study suggests feral cats may kill several billion birds each year in the United States. Certain species appear more susceptible than others; for example, 30% of house sparrow mortality is linked to the domestic cat. In the recovery of ringed robins (Erithacus rubecula) and dunnocks (Prunella modularis), 31% of deaths were a result of cat predation. In parts of North America, the presence of larger carnivores such as coyotes which prey on cats and other small predators reduces the effect of predation by cats and other small predators such as opossums and raccoons on bird numbers and variety. The proposal that cat populations will increase when the numbers of these top predators decline is called the mesopredator release hypothesis.
On islands, birds can contribute as much as 60% of a cat's diet. In nearly all cases, however, the cat cannot be identified as the sole cause for reducing the numbers of island birds, and in some instances, eradication of cats has caused a 'mesopredator release' effect; where the suppression of top carnivores creates an abundance of smaller predators that cause a severe decline in their shared prey. Domestic cats are, however, known to be a contributing factor to the decline of many species, a factor that has ultimately led, in some cases, to extinction. The South Island piopio, Chatham rail, the New Zealand merganser, and the common diving petrel are a few from a long list, with the most extreme case being the flightless Lyall's wren, which was driven to extinction only a few years after its discovery.
Some of the same factors that have promoted adaptive radiation of island avifauna over evolutionary time appear to promote vulnerability to non-native species in modern time. The susceptibility of many island birds is undoubtedly due to evolution in the absence of mainland predators, competitors, diseases, and parasites, in addition to lower reproductive rates and extended incubation periods. The loss of flight, or reduced flying ability is also characteristic of many island endemics. These biological aspects have increased vulnerability to extinction in the presence of introduced species, such as the domestic cat. Equally, behavioral traits exhibited by island species, such as "predatory naivety" and ground-nesting, have also contributed to their susceptibility.
Interaction with humans Main article: Human interaction with cats
Cats and people Cats are common pets throughout the world, and their worldwide population exceeds 500 million. Although cat guardianship has commonly been associated with women, a 2007 Gallup poll reported that men and women in the United States of America were equally likely to own a cat.
As well as being kept as pets, cats are also used in the international fur and leather industries for making coats, hats, blankets, and stuffed toys; and shoes, gloves, and musical instruments respectively (about 24 cats are needed to make a cat-fur coat). This use has been outlawed in the United States, Australia, and the European Union. Cat pelts have been used for superstitious purposes as part of the practise of witchcraft, and are still made into blankets in Switzerland as folk remedies believed to help rheumatism. In the Western intellectual tradition, the idea of cats as everyday objects have served to illustrate problems of quantum mechanics in the Schrödinger's cat thought experiment.
A few attempts to build a cat census have been made over the years, both through associations or national and international organizations (such as the Canadian Federation of Humane Societies's one) and over the Internet, but such a task does not seem simple to achieve. General estimates for the global population of domestic cats range widely from anywhere between 200 million to 600 million.
Cat show Main article: Cat show A cat show is a judged event where the owners of cats compete to win titles in various cat registering organizations by entering their cats to be judged after a breed standard. Both pedigreed and companion (or moggy) cats are admissible, although the rules differ from organization to organization. Cats are compared to a breed standard, and the owners of those judged to be closest to it are awarded a prize. Moggies are judged based on their temperament. Often, at the end of the year, all of the points accrued at various shows are added up and more national and regional titles are awarded.
Cat café Main article: Cat café A cat café is a theme café whose attraction is cats that can be watched and played with. Patrons pay a cover fee, generally hourly and thus cat cafés can be seen as a form of supervised indoor pet rental.
Ailurophobia Main article: Ailurophobia Ailurophobia is a human phobia of cats; however, the term is often associated with humans that have a hatred of cats.
Cat bites Main article: Cat bite Cats may bite humans when provoked, during play or when aggressive. Complications from cat bites can develop. A cat bite differs from the bites of other pets. This is because the teeth of a cat are sharp and pointed causing deep punctures. Skin usually closes rapidly over the bite and traps microorganisms that cause infection.
Infections transmitted from cats to humans Main article: Feline zoonosis Cats can be infected or infested with viruses, bacteria, fungus, protozoans, arthropods or worms that can transmit diseases to humans. In some cases, the cat exhibits no symptoms of the disease, However, the same disease can then become evident in a human. The likelihood that a person will become diseased depends on the age and immune status of the person. Humans who have cats living in their home or in close association are more likely to become infected, however, those who do not keep cats as pets might also acquire infections from cat feces and parasites exiting the cat's body. Some of the infections of most concern include salmonella, cat scratch disease and toxoplasmosis.
History and mythology Main articles: Cultural depictions of cats and Cats in ancient Egypt
The ancient Egyptians mummified dead cats out of respect in the same way that they mummified people.
Ancient Roman mosaic of a cat killing a partridge from the House of the Faun in Pompeii
A 19th-century drawing of a tabby cat Traditionally, historians tended to think ancient Egypt was the site of cat domestication, owing to the clear depictions of house cats in Egyptian paintings about 3,600 years old. However, in 2004, a Neolithic grave excavated in Shillourokambos, Cyprus, contained the skeletons, laid close to one another, of both a human and a cat. The grave is estimated to be 9,500 years old, pushing back the earliest known feline–human association significantly. The cat specimen is large and closely resembles the African wildcat, rather than present-day domestic cats. This discovery, combined with genetic studies, suggests cats were probably domesticated in the Middle East, in the Fertile Crescent around the time of the development of agriculture, and then were brought to Cyprus and Egypt. Direct evidence for the domestication of cats 5,300 years ago in Quanhucun, China has been published by archaeologists and paleontologists from the University of Washington and Chinese Academy of Sciences. The cats are believed to have been attracted to the village by rodents, which in turn were attracted by grain cultivated and stored by humans.
In ancient Egypt, cats were sacred animals, with the goddess Bastet often depicted in cat form, sometimes taking on the war-like aspect of a lioness.:220 Killing a cat was absolutely forbidden and the Greek historian Herodotus reports that, whenever a household cat died, the entire family would mourn and shave their eyebrows. Families took their dead cats to the sacred city of Bubastis, where they were embalmed and buried in sacred repositories. Domestic cats were probably first introduced to Greece and southern Italy in the fifth century BC by the Phoenicians. The earliest unmistakable evidence of the Greeks having domestic cats comes from two coins from Magna Graecia dating to the mid-fifth century BC showing Iokastos and Phalanthos, the legendary founders of Rhegion and Taras respectively, playing with their pet cats.:57–58
Housecats seem to have been extremely rare among the ancient Greeks and Romans; Herodotus expressed astonishment at the domestic cats in Egypt, because he had only ever seen wildcats. Even during later times, weasels were far more commonly kept as pets and weasels, not cats, were seen as the ideal rodent-killers. The usual ancient Greek word for "cat" was ailouros, meaning "thing with the waving tail",:57 but this word could also be applied to any of the "various long-tailed carnivores kept for catching mice". Cats are rarely mentioned in ancient Greek literature, but Aristotle does remark in his History of Animals that "female cats are naturally lecherous.":74 The Greeks later syncretized their own goddess Artemis with the Egyptian goddess Bastet, adopting Bastet's associations with cats and ascribing them to Artemis.:77–79 In Ovid's Metamorphoses, when the gods flee to Egypt and take animal forms, the goddess Diana (the Roman equivalent of Artemis) turns into a cat.:79 Cats eventually displaced ferrets as the pest control of choice because they were more pleasant to have around the house and were more enthusiastic hunters of mice. During the Middle Ages, many of Artemis's associations with cats were grafted onto the Virgin Mary. Cats are often shown in icons of Annunciation and of the Holy Family and, according to Italian folklore, on the same night that Mary gave birth to Jesus, a virgin cat in Bethlehem gave birth to a kitten. Domestic cats were spread throughout much of the rest of the world during the Age of Discovery, as ships' cats were carried on sailing ships to control shipboard rodents and as good-luck charms.:223
Several ancient religions believed cats are exalted souls, companions or guides for humans, that are all-knowing but mute so they cannot influence decisions made by humans. In Japan, the maneki neko cat is a symbol of good fortune. In Norse mythology, Freyja, the goddess of love, beauty, and fertility, is depicted as riding a chariot drawn by cats. In Jewish legend, the first cat was living in the house of the first man Adam as a pet that got rid of mice. The cat was once partnering with the first dog before the latter broke an oath they had made which resulted in enmity between the descendants of these two animals. It is also written that neither cats nor foxes are represented in the water, while every other animal has an incarnation species in the water. Although no species are sacred in Islam, cats are revered by Muslims. Some Western writers have stated Muhammad had a favorite cat, Muezza. He is reported to have loved cats so much, "he would do without his cloak rather than disturb one that was sleeping on it". The story has no origin in early Muslim writers, and seems to confuse a story of a later Sufi saint, Ahmed ar-Rifa'i, centuries after Muhammad. One of the companions of Muhammad was known as "Abu Hurayrah" (Father of the Kitten), in reference to his documented affection to cats.
Superstitions and cat burning
Some cultures are superstitious about black cats, ascribing either good or bad luck to them. Many cultures have negative superstitions about cats. An example would be the belief that a black cat "crossing one's path" leads to bad luck, or that cats are witches' familiars used to augment a witch's powers and skills. The killing of cats in Medieval Ypres, Belgium, is commemorated in the innocuous present-day Kattenstoet (cat parade). In medieval France, cats would be burnt alive as a form of entertainment. According to Norman Davies, the assembled people "shrieked with laughter as the animals, howling with pain, were singed, roasted, and finally carbonized".
"It was the custom to burn a basket, barrel, or sack full of live cats, which was hung from a tall mast in the midst of the bonfire; sometimes a fox was burned. The people collected the embers and ashes of the fire and took them home, believing that they brought good luck. The French kings often witnessed these spectacles and even lit the bonfire with their own hands. In 1648 Louis XIV, crowned with a wreath of roses and carrying a bunch of roses in his hand, kindled the fire, danced at it and partook of the banquet afterwards in the town hall. But this was the last occasion when a monarch presided at the midsummer bonfire in Paris. At Metz midsummer fires were lighted with great pomp on the esplanade, and a dozen cats, enclosed in wicker cages, were burned alive in them, to the amusement of the people. Similarly at Gap, in the department of the Hautes-Alpes, cats used to be roasted over the midsummer bonfire."
According to a myth in many cultures, cats have multiple lives. In many countries, they are believed to have nine lives, but in Italy, Germany, Greece, Brazil and some Spanish-speaking regions, they are said to have seven lives, while in Turkish and Arabic traditions, the number of lives is six. The myth is attributed to the natural suppleness and swiftness cats exhibit to escape life-threatening situations. Also lending credence to this myth is the fact that falling cats often land on their feet, using an instinctive righting reflex to twist their bodies around. Nonetheless, cats can still be injured or killed by a high fall.
Book: Cat icon Cats portal icon Mammals portal Aging in cats Animal testing on cats Animal track Cancer in cats Cat and mouse (cat-and-mouse game) Cat burning Cat intelligence Cat lady Cats and the Internet Dog–cat relationship Dried cat List of cat breeds List of cat documentaries List of cats List of fictional cats and felines Pet door including cat flap Pet first aid Popular cat names Trap-neuter-return Cats by location Cats in ancient Egypt Cats in Australia Cats in New Zealand Cats in the United States Notes Taurine is sometimes called an amino acid, and indeed is an acid containing an amino group, it is not an amino acid in the usual biochemical meaning of the term, which refers to compounds containing both an amino and a carboxyl group. References Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Species Felis catus". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 534–535. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494. Linnaeus, Carl (1758). Systema naturae (in Latin). 1 (10th ed.). Stockholm: Lars Salvius. p. 42. Archived from the original on 31 August 2017. Retrieved 4 September 2017 – via Biodiversity Heritage Library. See Opinion 2027 "ITIS Standard Report Page: Felis catus domestica". ITIS Online Database. Archived from the original on 19 January 2012. Retrieved 14 December 2011. "ITIS Standard Report Page: Felis catus". ITIS Online Database. Reston, Virginia: Integrated Taxonomic Information System. 2011. Archived from the original on 10 January 2012. Retrieved 14 December 2011. Housecat. American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 2010. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 6 October 2010 – via Yahoo.com. Moelk, Mildred (April 1944). "Vocalizing in the House-cat; A Phonetic and Functional Study". The American Journal of Psychology. 57 (2): 184–205. doi:10.2307/1416947. JSTOR 1416947. Tucker, Abigail (2016). The Lion in the Living Room: How House Cats Tamed Us and Took Over the World. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 1476738238. Archived from the original on 14 November 2016. Retrieved 13 November 2016. Rochlitz, Irene (2007). The Welfare of Cats. "Animal Welfare" series. Berlin: Springer Science+Business Media. pp. 141–175. ISBN 1-4020-6143-9. Impact of Feral Cats in Australia Archived 20 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine. "Cats Responsible For Driving Many Species To Extinction". IFLScience. Retrieved 6 June 2018. Winters, L.; Walter, G. E. (May 2006). "Impacts of Feral and Free-ranging Cats on Bird Species of Conservation Concern" (PDF). ABCBirds.org. American Bird Conservancy. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 April 2015. Wade, Nicholas (2007). "Study Traces Cat's Ancestry to Middle East". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 18 April 2009. Retrieved 2 April 2008. Vigne, J. D.; Guilaine, J.; Debue, K.; Haye, L.; Gérard, P. (2004). "Early taming of the cat in Cyprus". Science. 304 (5668): 259. doi:10.1126/science.1095335. PMID 15073370. Driscoll, C. A.; Menotti-Raymond, M.; Roca, A. L.; Hupe, K.; Johnson, W. E.; Geffen, E.; Harley, E. H.; Delibes, M.; Pontier, D.; Kitchener, A. C.; Yamaguchi, N.; O'Brien, S. J.; Macdonald, D. W. (2007). "The Near Eastern Origin of Cat Domestication". Science. 317 (5837): 519–523. Bibcode:2007Sci...317..519D. doi:10.1126/science.1139518. ISSN 0036-8075. PMC 5612713 Freely accessible. PMID 17600185. "Oldest Known Pet Cat? 9,500-year-old Burial Found on Cyprus". National Geographic News. National Geographic Society. 2004. Archived from the original on 3 March 2007. Retrieved 6 March 2007. Vigne, J.-D.; Evin, A.; Cucchi, T.; Dai, L.; Yu, C.; Hu, S.; Soulages, N.; Wang, W.; Sun, Z. (2016). "Earliest 'Domestic' Cats in China Identified as Leopard Cat (Prionailurus bengalensis)". PLOS One. 11 (1): e0147295. Bibcode:2016PLoSO..1147295V. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0147295. PMC 4723238 Freely accessible. PMID 26799955. Grimm, David (27 January 2016). "Were cats domesticated more than once?". sciencemag.org. Archived from the original on 27 January 2016. Retrieved 27 January 2016. Sample, Ian (19 June 2017). "Africats to the Purr-ymids: DNA study reveals long tale of cat domestication". theguardian.com. Archived from the original on 19 June 2017. Retrieved 19 June 2017. Ottoni, Claudio; Van Neer, Wim; De Cupere, Bea; Daligault, Julien; Guimaraes, Silvia; Peters, Joris; Spassov, Nikolai; Prendergast, Mary E.; Boivin, Nicole; Morales-Muñiz, Arturo; Bălăşescu, Adrian; Becker, Cornelia; Benecke, Norbert; Boroneant, Adina; Buitenhuis, Hijlke; Chahoud, Jwana; Crowther, Alison; Llorente, Laura; Manaseryan, Nina; Monchot, Hervé; Onar, Vedat; Osypińska, Marta; Putelat, Olivier; Quintana Morales, Eréndira M.; Studer, Jacqueline; Wierer, Ursula; Decorte, Ronny; Grange, Thierry; Geigl, Eva-Maria (2017). "The palaeogenetics of cat dispersal in the ancient world". Nature Ecology & Evolution. Nature Publishing Group. 1 (7): 0139. doi:10.1038/s41559-017-0139. ISSN 2397-334X. Thompson, Andrea. "What's the Most Popular Pet?". LiveScience. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 15 December 2015. "Statistics about pets in the UK" Archived 26 December 2012 at the Wayback Machine.. 2010, Society for Companion Animal Studies. Retrieved 15 November 2016 Johnson, Warren; O'Brien, Stephen J. (1997). "Phylogenetic Reconstruction of the Felidae Using 16S rRNA and NADH-5 Mitochondrial Genes". Journal of Molecular Evolution. 44: S98–S116. Bibcode:1997JMolE..44S..98J. doi:10.1007/PL00000060. PMID 9071018. "ITIS Standard Report Page: Felis". ITIS Online Database. Archived from the original on 19 May 2012. Retrieved 14 December 2011. Stefoff, Rebecca (November 2003). Cats. New York: Benchmark Books. p. 34. ISBN 0-7614-1577-7. Yamaguchi, N.; Kitchener, A.; Driscoll, C.; Nussberger, B. (2015). "Felis silvestris (Wildcat, Wild Cat)". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Archived from the original on 16 December 2016. Retrieved 24 March 2017. Francis, Richard C. (2015). Domesticated: Evolution in a Man-Made World. W. W. Norton & Company. House Cat Origin Traced to Middle Eastern Wildcat Ancestor Archived 31 January 2017 at the Wayback Machine. Brian Handwerk for National Geographic News, 28 June 2007 Driscoll, C. A.; MacDonald, D. W.; O'Brien, Stephen J. (2009). "In the Light of Evolution III: Two Centuries of Darwin Sackler Colloquium: From Wild Animals to Domestic Pets – An Evolutionary View of Domestication". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 106 (S1): 9971–9978. Bibcode:2009PNAS..106.9971D. doi:10.1073/pnas.0901586106. PMC 2702791 Freely accessible. PMID 19528637. Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Species Felis silvestris". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 536–537. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494. "Opinion 2027". Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature. International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN). 60. 2003. Archived from the original on 9 June 2012. MacDonald, M. L.; Rogers, Q. R.; Morris, J. G. (1984). "Nutrition of the domestic cat, a mammalian carnivore". Annual Review of Nutrition. 4: 521–562. doi:10.1146/annurev.nu.04.070184.002513. PMID 6380542. Erxleben, J. C. P. (1777). Systema regni animalis. p. 520. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017 – via Biodiversity Heritage Library. Baron, Alan; Stewart, C. N.; Warren, J. M. (1 January 1957). "Patterns of Social Interaction in Cats (Felis domestica)". Behaviour. 11 (1): 56–66. doi:10.1163/156853956X00084. JSTOR 4532869. "Catalogue of the Specimens of Caucasian Large Mammalian Fauna in the Collection". National Museum of Georgia. Archived from the original on 21 March 2013. Retrieved 4 July 2013. Johnson, Warren E.; Eizirik, E.; Pecon-Slattery, J.; Murphy, W. J.; Antunes, A.; Teeling, E.; O'Brien, Stephen J. (2006). "The Late Miocene Radiation of Modern Felidae: A Genetic Assessment". Science. 311 (5757): 73–77. Bibcode:2006Sci...311...73J. doi:10.1126/science.1122277. PMID 16400146. Mattern, Michelle Y.; McLennan, Deborah A. (2000). "Phylogeny and Speciation of Felids". Cladistics. 16 (2): 232–253. doi:10.1111/j.1096-0031.2000.tb00354.x. Masuda, R.; Lopez, J. V.; Slattery, J. P.; Yuhki,, N.; O'Brien, Stephen J. (1996). "Molecular Phylogeny of Mitochondrial Cytochrome b and 12S rRNA Sequences in the Felidae: Ocelot and Domestic Cat Lineages". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 6 (3): 351–365. doi:10.1006/mpev.1996.0085. PMID 8975691. Lipinski, Monika J.; Froenicke, Lutz; Baysac, Kathleen C.; Billings, Nicholas C.; Leutenegger, Christian M.; Levy, Alon M.; Longeri, Maria; Niini, Tirri; Ozpinar, Haydar (January 2008). "The Ascent of Cat Breeds: Genetic Evaluations of Breeds and Worldwide Random-bred Populations". Genomics. 91 (1): 12–21. doi:10.1016/j.ygeno.2007.10.009. PMC 2267438 Freely accessible. PMID 18060738. Cameron-Beaumont, Charlotte; Lowe, Sarah E.; Bradshaw, John W. S. (2002). "Evidence Suggesting Pre-adaptation to Domestication Throughout the Small Felidae" (PDF). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 75 (3): 361–366. doi:10.1046/j.1095-8312.2002.00028.x. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 June 2011. Retrieved 29 September 2009. Bradshawa, J. W. S.; Horsfield, G. F.; Allen, J. A.; Robinson, I. H. (1999). "Feral Cats: Their Role in the Population Dynamics of Felis catus". Applied Animal Behaviour Science. 65 (3): 273–283. doi:10.1016/S0168-1591(99)00086-6. Oliveira, R.; Godinho, R.; Randi, E.; Alves, P. C. (2008). "Hybridization Versus Conservation: Are Domestic Cats Threatening the Genetic Integrity of Wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris) in Iberian Peninsula?". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences. 363 (1505): 2953–2961. doi:10.1098/rstb.2008.0052. PMC 2606743 Freely accessible. PMID 18522917. Fogle, Bruce, ed. (1981). Interrelations Between People and Pets. Charles C. Thomas Publications. ISBN 0-398-04169-5. O'Connor, T. P. (2007). "Wild or Domestic? Biometric Variation in the Cat Felis silvestris". International Journal of Osteoarchaeology. 17 (6): 581–595. doi:10.1002/oa.913. Harper, Douglas (ed.). "cat". Online Etymology Dictionary. Archived from the original on 20 September 2007. Retrieved 29 September 2009.. McKnight, George H. (1923). English Words and Their BackgroundPaid subscription required. New York: D. Appleton and Company. p. 130. Archived from the original on 5 July 2017 – via Questia. "cat". The Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 1 October 2012. Huehnergard, John. "Qitta: Arabic Cats". Classical Arabic Humanities in Their Own Terms. Savignac, Jean-Paul (2004). "chat". Dictionnaire français-gaulois. Paris: Errance. p. 82. Kroonen, Guus (2013). Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill Publishers. p. 281f. ISBN 978-90-04-18340-7. "Puss". The Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 1 October 2012. "puss". Webster's Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language. New York: Gramercy (Random House). 1996. p. 1571. "What do you call a group of ...?". Oxford Dictionaries Online. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 12 October 2012. Retrieved 1 October 2012. "tom cat, tom-cat". The Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 1 October 2012. "gib, n.2". The Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved 1 October 2012. "queen cat". The Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved 1 October 2012. "sire". The Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved 1 October 2012. "Dam, n.2". The Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved 1 October 2012. "catling". The Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved 1 October 2012. Hartwell, Sarah (2002–2011). "Dwarf, Midget and Miniature Cats (Including 'Tea-cup' Cats)". MessyBeast.com. self-published. Archived from the original on 27 February 2015. Retrieved 27 January 2015.[self-published source] Wilson, Julia (2002–2008). "Cat World Records". Cat-World.com.au. self-published. Archived from the original on 1 August 2008. Retrieved 7 September 2012. "Feline Veterinary care by The Boston Cat Hospital/Feline Fast Cats". Boston Cat Hospital. Archived from the original on 31 October 2012. Retrieved 10 January 2013. "Domestic Cat". Animal Bytes. SeaWorld Parks and Entertainment. 2011. Archived from the original on 17 December 2011. Retrieved 14 December 2011. This tertiary source reuses information from other sources without citing them in detail. Walker, Warren F. (1982). Study of the Cat with Reference to Human Beings (4th Revised ed.). Thomson Learning (Cengage). ISBN 0-03-057914-7. Gillis, Rick, ed. (22 July 2002). "Cat Skeleton". Zoolab. La Crosse: University of Wisconsin. Archived from the original on 6 December 2006. Retrieved 7 September 2012. *Case, Linda P. (2003). The Cat: Its Behavior, Nutrition, and Health. Ames: Iowa State University Press. ISBN 0-8138-0331-4. Smith, Patricia; Tchernov, Eitan (1992). Structure, Function and Evolution of teeth. Freund Publishing House. p. 217. ISBN 965-222-270-4. Carr, William H. A. (1 January 1978). The New Basic Book of the Cat. Scribner's. p. 174. ISBN 978-0-684-15549-4. Lacquaniti, F.; Grasso, R.; Zago, M. (1 August 1999). "Motor Patterns in Walking". News Physiol. Sci. 14 (4): 168–174. PMID 11390844. Christensen, Wendy (2004). Outwitting Cats. Globe Pequot. p. 23. ISBN 1-59228-240-7. Russell, Anthony P.; Bryant, Harold N. (2001). "Claw Retraction and Protraction in the Carnivora: The Cheetah (Acinonyx Jubatus) as an Atypical Felid". Journal of Zoology. 254 (1): 67–76. doi:10.1017/S0952836901000565. Armes, Annetta F. (22 December 1900). "Outline of Cat Lessons". The School Journal. E. L. Kellogg & Co. LXI: 659. Retrieved 12 November 2007. Danforth, C. H. (April 1947). "Heredity of polydactyly in the cat" (PDF). The Journal of Heredity. 38 (4): 107–112. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.jhered.a105701. PMID 20242531. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 September 2013. Lettice, L. A.; Hill, A. E.; Devenney, P. S.; Hill, R. E. (April 2008). "Point mutations in a distant sonic hedgehog cis-regulator generate a variable regulatory output responsible for preaxial polydactyly". Human Molecular Genetics. 17 (7): 978–985. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddm370. PMID 18156157. US National Research Council Subcommittee on Dog and Cat Nutrition (2006). Nutrient Requirements of Dogs and Cats. Washington DC: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. p. 292. ISBN 0-309-08628-0. Kahn, Cynthia M.; Line, Scott (2007). Hollander, Joseph Lee, ed. The Merck/Merial Manual for Pet Health. Merck & Co. ISBN 0-911910-99-9. "How do cats sweat?". CatHealth.com. Archived from the original on 3 March 2014. Retrieved 24 February 2014. Adams, T.; Morgan, M. L.; Hunter, W. S.; Holmes, K. R. (1970). "Temperature Regulation of the Unanesthetized Cat During Mild Cold and Severe Heat Stress". Journal of Applied Physiology. 29 (6): 852–858. PMID 5485356. US National Research Council Committee on Animal Nutrition (1986). Nutrient Requirements of Cats (2nd ed.). Washington DC: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Archived from the original on 15 August 2010. Prentiss, Phoebe G. (1959). "Hydropenia in Cat and Dog: Ability of the Cat to Meet its Water Requirements Solely from a Diet of Fish or Meat". American Journal of Physiology. 196 (3): 625–632. doi:10.1152/ajplegacy.19126.96.36.1995. PMID 13627237. Wolf, A. V. (1959). "Potability of Sea Water with Special Reference to the Cat". American Journal of Physiology. 196 (3): 633–641. doi:10.1152/ajplegacy.19188.8.131.523. PMID 13627238. Fraser, Andrew F. (2012). Feline Behaviour and Welfare. Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International. p. 107. ISBN 978-1-78064-121-8. Archived from the original on 20 February 2018. Zoran, D. L. (2002). "The Carnivore Connection to Nutrition in Cats" (PDF). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 221 (11): 1559–1567. doi:10.2460/javma.2002.221.1559. PMID 12479324. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 May 2010. Gray, C. M.; Sellon, R. K.; Freeman, L. M. (2004). "Nutritional Adequacy of Two Vegan Diets for Cats". Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 225 (11): 1670–1675. doi:10.2460/javma.2004.225.1670. PMID 15626215. Zaghini, G.; Biagi, G. (2005). "Nutritional Peculiarities and Diet Palatability in the Cat". Vet. Res. Commun. 29 (Supplement 2): 39–44. doi:10.1007/s11259-005-0009-1. PMID 16244923. Tucker, Abigail; Worrall, Simon. "How Cats Clawed Their Way Into Our Hearts". National Geographic. Archived from the original on 14 November 2016. Retrieved 13 November 2016. "Why Do Cats Eat Grass?". AnimalPlanet.com. Archived from the original on 3 April 2017. Retrieved 2 April 2017. Morris, J. G.; Rogers, Q. R. (1 December 1978). "Arginine: An Essential Amino Acid for the Cat". Journal of Nutrition. 108 (12): 1944–1953. PMID 722344. Bauer, J. (1998). Nutritional Uniqueness of Cats. Veterinary Quarterly,20(Sup1), 78-79. "the definition of amino acid". Dictionary.com. Retrieved 22 February 2017. Schullerlevis, G.; Mehta, P.; Rudelli, R.; Sturman, J. (1990). "Immunological Consequences of Taurine Deficiency in Cats". Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 47 (4): 321–331. MacDonald, M. L.; Rogers, Q. R. (1984). "Nutrition of the domestic cat, a mammalian carnivore". Annual Review of Nutrition. 4: 521–562. doi:10.1146/annurev.nutr.4.1.521. Morris, J. (2002). "Idiosyncratic nutrient requirements of cats appear to be diet-induced evolutionary adaptations". Nutrition Research Reviews. 15 (1): 153–168. doi:10.1079/nrr200238. US National Research Council Subcommittee on Dog and Cat Nutrition (2006). "The Role of Vitamins and Minerals in the Diet for Cats". Nutrient Requirements of Cats and Dogs. Washington DC: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. ISBN 0-309-08628-0. Archived from the original on 7 September 2006. "The Nutritional Requirements of the Cat". Nutrition Reviews. 40 (9): 283–285. 1982. doi:10.1111/j.1753-4887.1982.tb05341.x.[full citation needed] Girard, N.; Servet, E.; Hennet, P.; Biourge, V. (2010). "Tooth Resorption and Vitamin D 3 Status in Cats Fed Premium Dry Diets". Journal of Veterinary Dentistry. 27 (3): 142–147. doi:10.1177/089875641002700301. Morris, James G (1999). "Ineffective vitamin D synthesis in cats is reversed by an inhibitor of 7-dehydrocholesterol-delta(super 7)-reductase". The Journal of Nutrition. 129 (4): 903–908. doi:10.1093/jn/129.4.903. PMID 10203568. MacDonald, M. L.; Anderson, B. C.; Rogers, Q. R; Buffington, C. A. (1984). "Essential fatty acid requirements of cats: Pathology of essential fatty acid deficiency". American Journal of Veterinary Research. 45 (7): 1310–1317. Archived from the original on 20 February 2018. Ollivier, F. J.; Samuelson, D. A.; Brooks, D. E.; Lewis, P. A.; Kallberg, M. E.; Komaromy, A. M. (2004). "Comparative Morphology of the Tapetum Lucidum (among Selected Species)". Veterinary Ophthalmology. 7 (1): 11–22. doi:10.1111/j.1463-5224.2004.00318.x. PMID 14738502. Malmström, T.; Kröger, R. H. (2006). "Pupil shapes and lens optics in the eyes of terrestrial vertebrates". Journal of Experimental Biology. 209 (Pt. 1): 18–25. doi:10.1242/jeb.01959. PMID 16354774. Hammond, P.; Mouat, G. S. V. (1985). "The relationship between feline pupil size and luminance". Experimental Brain Research. 59 (3): 485–490. doi:10.1007/BF00261338. Loop, M. S.; Bruce, L. L. (1978). "Cat Color Vision: The Effect of Stimulus Size". Science. 199 (4334): 1221–1222. Bibcode:1978Sci...199.1221L. doi:10.1126/science.628838. PMID 628838. Guenther, Elke; Zrenner, Eberhart (April 1993). "The Spectral Sensitivity of Dark- and Light-adapted Cat Retinal Ganglion Cells". Journal of Neuroscience. 13 (4): 1543–1550. PMID 8463834. Archived from the original on 13 April 2011. Heffner, Rickye S. (November 2004). "Primate hearing from a mammalian perspective" (PDF). The Anatomical Record Part A: Discoveries in Molecular, Cellular, and Evolutionary Biology. 281 (1): 1111–1122. doi:10.1002/ar.a.20117. PMID 15472899. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 September 2006. Retrieved 20 August 2009. Heffner, Henry E. (May 1998). "Auditory awareness". Applied Animal Behaviour Science. 57 (3–4): 259–268. doi:10.1016/S0168-1591(98)00101-4. Sunquist, Melvin E.; Sunquist, Fiona (2002). Wild Cats of the World. University of Chicago Press. p. 10. ISBN 0-226-77999-8. Blumberg, M. S. (1992). "Rodent ultrasonic short calls: locomotion, biomechanics, and communication". Journal of Comparative Psychology. 106 (4): 360–365. doi:10.1037/0735-7036.106.4.360. PMID 1451418. Heffner, Rickye S. (1985). "Hearing range of the domestic cat" (PDF). Hearing Research. 19 (1): 85–88. doi:10.1016/0378-5955(85)90100-5. PMID 4066516. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 August 2010. Retrieved 20 August 2009. Moulton, David G. (1 August 1967). "Olfaction in mammals". American Zoology. 7 (3): 421–429. doi:10.1093/icb/7.3.421. Miyazaki, M.; Yamashita, T; Suzuki, Y.; Saito, Y.; Soeta, S.; Taira, H.; Suzuki, A. (2006). "A major urinary protein of the domestic cat regulates the production of felinine, a putative pheromone precursor". Chemical Biology. 13 (10): 1071–1079. doi:10.1016/j.chembiol.2006.08.013. PMID 17052611. Sommerville, B. A. (1998). "Olfactory Awareness". Applied Animal Behaviour Science. 57 (3–4): 269–286. doi:10.1016/S0168-1591(98)00102-6. Grognet, Jeff (June 1990). "Catnip: Its uses and effects, past and present". The Canadian Veterinary Journal. 31 (6): 455–456. PMC 1480656 Freely accessible. PMID 17423611. Turner, Ramona (29 May 2007). "How does catnip work its magic on cats?". Scientific American. Archived from the original on 22 October 2013. Tucker, Arthur; Tucker, Sharon (1988). "Catnip and the catnip response". Economic Botany. 42 (2): 214–231. doi:10.1007/BF02858923. Schelling, Christianne. "Do Cats Have a Sense of Taste?". CatHealth.com. Archived from the original on 28 January 2016. "Why Cats Can't Taste Sweets". Petside.com. 13 March 2012. Archived from the original on 25 January 2013. Retrieved 11 January 2013. Bradshaw, John W. S. (1 July 2006). "The Evolutionary Basis for the Feeding Behavior of Domestic Dogs (Canis familiaris) and Cats (Felis catus)". Journal of Nutrition. 136 (7): 1927S–1931. doi:10.1093/jn/136.7.1927S. PMID 16772461. Nash, Holly. "Why Do Cats Like High Places?". PetEducation.com. Drs. Foster & Smith Inc. Archived from the original on 2 January 2008. "Falling Cats". Archived from the original on 26 October 2005. Retrieved 24 October 2005. Nguyen, Huy D. (1998). "How Does a Cat Always Land on Its Feet?". Dynamics II (ME 3760) Course Materials. School of Medical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology. Archived from the original on 10 April 2001. Retrieved 15 May 2007. This tertiary source reuses information from other sources but does not name them. Kent, Marc; Platt, Simon R. (September 2010). "The neurology of balance: Function and dysfunction of the vestibular system in dogs and cats". The Veterinary Journal. 185 (3): 247–249. doi:10.1016/j.tvjl.2009.10.029. Kraft, W. (February 1998). "Geriatrics in canine and feline internal medicine". European Journal of Medical Research. 3 (1–2): 31–41. PMID 9512965. Nassar R, Mosier JE, Williams LW (February 1984). "Study of the feline and canine populations in the greater Las Vegas area". American Journal of Veterinary Research. 45 (2): 282–287. PMID 6711951. "What Is the Average Lifespan of a Cat?". The Spruce Pets. Retrieved 6 June 2018. Example: "Me-wow! Texas Woman Says Cat is 30 Years Old – Although She Can't Hear or See Very Well, Caterack the Cat Is Still Purring". MSNBC.MSN.com. New York: Microsoft. 30 September 2009. Archived from the original on 2 October 2009. Retrieved 30 September 2009. Guinness World Records (reprint ed.). Bantam Books. 2010. p. 320. ISBN 978-0-553-59337-2. The oldest cat ever was Creme Puff, who was born on August 3, 1967 and lived until August 6, 2005 – 38 years and 3 days in total. "Cat Care: Spay–Neuter". ASPCA.org. New York: American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. 2011. Archived from the original on 19 May 2012. Retrieved 14 December 2011. This tertiary source reuses information from other sources but does not name them. Levy, Julie K.; Gale, David W.; Gale, Leslie A. (January 2003). "Evaluation of the effect of a long-term trap-neuter-return and adoption program on a free-roaming cat population". Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 222 (1): 42–46. doi:10.2460/javma.2003.222.42. PMID 12523478. Levy, Julie K.; Crawford, P. Cynda (November 2004). "Humane strategies for controlling feral cat populations". Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 225 (9): 1354–1360. doi:10.2460/javma.2004.225.1354. PMID 15552308. A number of the four remaining colony cats at the Parliament Hill Cat Sanctuary in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada were 15 and 16 years old in 2013. "A beloved Parliament Hill attraction uses up its nine lives" Archived 20 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine., Karan Smith, The Globe and Mail, 1 February 2013. J. Remfry, Feral Cats in the United Kingdom (JAVMA Vol. 208, No. 4, 15 February 1996, pp. 520–523), at p. 522, available online at pp. 24–27 of "AVMA Animal Welfare Forum: The welfare of cats" Archived 19 August 2014 at the Wayback Machine., 3 November 1995. Zorro, the last cat of a colony at the Merrimack River in Newburyport, Massachusetts, died in 2009 at age 16. "Trap-Neuter-Return Effectively Stabilizes and Reduces Feral Cat Populations: Trap-Neuter-Return Humanely Stabilized and Reduced in Size the Merrimack River Colony" Archived 5 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine., Alley Cat Allies, accessed 18 August 2014; an earlier article in the LA Times was written when Zorro was the last remaining living cat: "Advocates report success with trap, neuter, return approach to stray cats" Archived 6 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine., Los Angeles Times, 29 September 2009. The last cat in a managed colony in Washington, D.C. died at age 17. "Trap-Neuter-Return Effectively Stabilizes and Reduces Feral Cat Populations: Washington, D.C. Cat Colony Stabilized and Eventually Reduced to Zero" Archived 5 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine., Alley Cat Allies, accessed 18 August 2014. Huston, Lorie (17 December 2012). "Veterinary Care for Your New Cat". PetMD. Archived from the original on 8 May 2017. Retrieved 31 January 2017. Nie, W.; Wang, J.; O'Brien, P. C. (2002). "The Genome Phylogeny of Domestic Cat, Red Panda and Five Mustelid Species Revealed by Comparative Chromosome Painting and G-banding". Chromosome Research. 10 (3): 209–222. doi:10.1023/A:1015292005631. PMID 12067210. Pontius, J. U.; Mullikin, J. C.; Smith, D. R.; Agencourt Sequencing Team; NISC Comparative Sequencing Program; et al. (2007). "Initial Sequence and Comparative Analysis of the Cat Genome". Genome Research. 17 (11): 1675–1689. doi:10.1101/gr.6380007. PMC 2045150 Freely accessible. PMID 17975172. O'Brien, Stephen J.; Johnson, W.; Driscoll, C.; Pontius, J.; Pecon-Slattery, J.; Menotti-Raymond, M. (2008). "State of Cat Genomics". Trends in Genetics. 24 (6): 268–279. doi:10.1016/j.tig.2008.03.004. PMID 18471926. Sewell, A. C.; Haskins, M. E.; Giger, U. (2007). "Inherited Metabolic Disease in Companion Animals: Searching for Nature's Mistakes". Veterinary Journal. 174 (2): 252–259. doi:10.1016/j.tvjl.2006.08.017. PMC 3132193 Freely accessible. PMID 17085062. O'Brien, Stephen J.; Menotti-Raymond, M.; Murphy, W. J.; Yuhki, N. (2002). "The Feline Genome Project". Annual Review of Genetics. 36: 657–686. doi:10.1146/annurev.genet.36.060602.145553. PMID 12359739. Germain, E.; Benhamou, S.; Poulle, M.-L. (2008). "Spatio-temporal Sharing between the European Wildcat, the Domestic Cat and their Hybrids". Journal of Zoology. 276 (2): 195–203. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.2008.00479.x. Barratt, David G. (1 June 1997). "Home Range Size, Habitat Utilisation and Movement Patterns of Suburban and Farm Cats Felis catus". Ecography. 20 (3): 271–280. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0587.1997.tb00371.x. JSTOR 3682838. Randall, Walter; Johnson, R. F.; Randall, S.; Cunningham, J. T. (1985). "Circadian rhythms in food intake and activity in domestic cats". Behavioral Neuroscience. 99 (6): 1162–1175. doi:10.1037/0735-7044.99.6.1162. PMID 3843546. Jouvet, Michel (1979). "What Does a Cat Dream About?". Trends in Neurosciences. 2: 280–282. doi:10.1016/0166-2236(79)90110-3. Pontier, Dominique; Natoli, Eugenia (1996). "Male Reproductive Success in the Domestic Cat (Felis catus L.): A Case History". Behavioural Processes. 37 (1): 85–88. doi:10.1016/0376-6357(95)00070-4. Crowell-Davis, S. L.; Curtis, T. M.; Knowles, R. J. (2004). "Social Organization in the Cat: A Modern Understanding" (PDF). Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery. 6 (1): 19–28. doi:10.1016/j.jfms.2003.09.013. PMID 15123163. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 July 2011. Retrieved 21 May 2008. Bradshaw, J. W.; Goodwin, D.; Legrand-Defrétin, V; Nott, H. M. (1996). "Food selection by the domestic cat, an obligate carnivore". Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology. 114 (3): 205–209. doi:10.1016/0300-9629(95)02133-7. PMID 8759144. Levine, E.; Perry, P.; Scarlett, J.; Houpt, K. (2005). "Intercat Aggression in Households Following the Introduction of a New Cat" (PDF). Applied Animal Behaviour Science. 90 (3–4): 325–336. doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2004.07.006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 March 2009. Retrieved 8 April 2009. "Dogs and Cats – Getting Along". PetUniversity.com. Archived from the original on 17 June 2013. Retrieved 4 July 2013. Mills, D. S.; Marchant-Forde, Jeremy (2010). Encyclopedia of Applied Animal Behaviour and Welfare. p. 518. ISBN 978-0-85199-724-7. Archived from the original on 7 April 2017. "The Cat Body: Adolescence and Sexual Maturity". AnimalPlanet.com (Animal.Discovery.com). Discovery Communications. 2007. "Cat Guide" section. Archived from the original on 30 June 2008. McComb, K.; Taylor, A. M.; Wilson, C.; Charlton, B. D. (2009). "The Cry Embedded within the Purr". Current Biology. 19 (13): R507–508. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2009.05.033. PMID 19602409. Soennichsen, Susan; Chamove, Arnold S. (2015). "Responses of cats to petting by humans". Anthrozoos. 15 (3): 258–265. doi:10.2752/089279302786992577 – via MUN Libraries. Jensen, Per (2009). The Ethology of Domestic Animals. "Modular Text" series. Wallingford, England: Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International. ISBN 1-84593-536-5. "Cat Behavior: Body Language". AnimalPlanet.com. 2007. Archived from the original on 24 February 2009. Retrieved 7 September 2012. Cafazzo, S.; Natoli, E. (2009). "The Social Function of Tail Up in the Domestic Cat (Felis silvestris catus)". Behav. Processes. 80 (1): 60–66. doi:10.1016/j.beproc.2008.09.008. PMID 18930121. von Muggenthaler, Elizabeth; Wright, Bill. "Solving the Cat's Purr Mystery Using Accelerometers". BKSV.com. Brüel & Kjær. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 11 February 2010. "The Cat's Remarkable Purr". ISnare.com. Archived from the original on 13 July 2011. Retrieved 6 August 2008. "Why and How Do Cats Purr?". Everyday Mysteries: Fun Science Facts from the Library of Congress. Washington DC: Library of Congress. Archived from the original on 3 April 2011. Retrieved 10 April 2011. "Panthera". Archived from the original on 26 November 2013. Retrieved 23 November 2013. Hadzima, Eva (2016). "Everything You Need to Know About Hairballs". Archived from the original on 6 October 2016. Boshel, J.; Wilborn, W. H; Singh, B. B.; Peter, S.; Stur, M. (1982). "Filiform Papillae of Cat Tongue". Acta Anatomica. 114 (2): 97–105. doi:10.1159/000145583. PMID 7180385. Lindell, Ellen M. (December 1997). "Intercat Aggression: A Retrospective Study Examining Types of Aggression, Sexes of Fighting Pairs, and Effectiveness of Treatment". Applied Animal Behaviour Science. 55 (1–2): 153–162. doi:10.1016/S0168-1591(97)00032-4. Yamane, Akihiro; Doi, Teruo; Ono, Yuiti (1996). "Mating Behaviors, Courtship Rank and Mating Success of Male Feral Cat (Felis catus)". Journal of Ethology. 14 (1): 35–44. doi:10.1007/BF02350090. Kustritz, Margaret V. Root (2007). "Determining the Optimal age for Gonadectomy of Dogs and Cats". Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 231 (11): 1665–1675. doi:10.2460/javma.231.11.1665. PMID 18052800. "Aggression Between Family Cats". Humane Society of the United States. 2002. Archived from the original on 14 December 2004. Pedersen, N. C.; Yamamoto, J. K.; Ishida, T.; Hansen, H. (1989). "Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Infection". Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 21 (1): 111–129. doi:10.1016/0165-2427(89)90134-7. PMID 2549690. Understanding and Training Your Cat or Kitten. Sunstone Press. pp. 146–147. ISBN 978-1-611-39080-3. Woods, M.; McDonald, R. A.; Harris, S. (2003). "Predation of wildlife by domestic cats Felis catus in Great Britain". Mammal Review. 23 (2): 174–188. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2907.2003.00017.x. Slesnick, Irwin L. (2004). Clones, Cats, and Chemicals: Thinking Scientifically About Controversial Issues. p. 9. Hill, Dennis S. (2008). Pests of Crops in Warmer Climates and Their Control. p. 120. Loss, Scott R.; Will, Tom; Marra, Peter P. (29 January 2013). "The impact of free-ranging domestic cats on wildlife of the United States". Nature Communications. 4. Article number 1396. Bibcode:2013NatCo...4E1396L. doi:10.1038/ncomms2380. PMID 23360987. We estimate that free-ranging domestic cats kill 1.4–3.7 billion birds and 6.9–20.7 billion mammals annually. Angier, Natalie (29 January 2013). "That Cuddly Kitty Is Deadlier Than You Think". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 30 January 2013. Retrieved 30 January 2013. Tucker, Abigail. "How Cats Evolved to Win the Internet". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 19 October 2016. Retrieved 13 November 2016. Turner, Dennis C.; Bateson, Patrick, eds. (2000). The Domestic Cat: The Biology of its Behaviour (2nd ed.). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-63648-5. "Why do cats play with their food?". Arizona Daily Sun. Archived from the original on 19 March 2011. Retrieved 15 August 2011. Leyhausen, Paul (1978). Cat Behavior: The Predatory and Social Behavior of Domestic and Wild Cats. New York: Garland STPM Press. ISBN 978-0-8240-7017-5. Desmond, Morris (1986). Catwatching: Why Cats Purr and Everything Else You Ever Wanted to Know. Crown Publishing.[clarification needed] "Why Do Cats Bring Home Dead Animals". LiveScience.com. Archived from the original on 21 September 2015. Retrieved 2 September 2015. Kienzle, E. (1994). "Blood Sugar Levels and Renal Sugar Excretion after the Intake of High Carbohydrate Diets in Cats" (PDF). Journal of Nutrition. 124 (12 Supplement): 2563S–2567S. doi:10.1093/jn/124.suppl_12.2563S. PMID 7996238. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 September 2013. Bradshaw, John W. S. (April 1997). "Factors affecting pica in the domestic cat". Applied Animal Behaviour Science. 52 (3–4): 373–379. doi:10.1016/S0168-1591(96)01136-7. "Pica: The Un-finicky Feline – Chewing or Eating Cords, Fabric, Houseplants, Etc". School of Veterinary Medicine at University of California, Davis. Archived from the original on 7 September 2009. Retrieved 6 September 2009. This tertiary source reuses information from other sources but does not name them. "Scientists catch a feral cat killing a large mammal on camera 'for the first time'". ABC News. Archived from the original on 4 September 2015. Retrieved 2 September 2015. Reubel, Gerhard (November 1992). "Acute and Chronic Faucitis of Domestic Cats: A Feline Calicivirus–Induced Disease". Elsevier. 22 (6): 1347–1360. doi:10.1016/s0195-5616(92)50131-0. Retrieved 1 September 2016. Wade, Nicholas (11 November 2010). "For Cats, a Big Gulp With a Touch of the Tongue". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 15 November 2010. Retrieved 12 November 2010. Becker, Karen (May 22, 2015). "The Cat That Can Run Up to 30 mph: Fastest Domestic Cat Breed in the World". Mercola Healthy Pets. Joseph Mercola. Retrieved June 28, 2018. Poirier, F. E.; Hussey, L. K. (1 July 1982). "Nonhuman Primate Learning: The Importance of Learning from an Evolutionary Perspective". Anthropology and Education Quarterly. 13 (2): 133–148. doi:10.1525/aeq.1982.13.2.05x1830j. JSTOR 3216627. Byers, John A.; Bekoff, Marc (1998). Animal Play: Evolutionary, Comparative, and Ecological Perspectives. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. p. 135. ISBN 0-521-58656-9. Hall, Sarah L. (2002). "Object Play in Adult Domestic Cats: The Roles of Habituation and Disinhibition". Applied Animal Behaviour Science. 79 (3): 263–271. doi:10.1016/S0168-1591(02)00153-3. Hall, Sarah L. (June 1998). "The Influence of Hunger on Object Play by Adult Domestic Cats". Applied Animal Behaviour Science. 58 (1–2): 143–150. doi:10.1016/S0168-1591(97)00136-6. MacPhail, Catriona (November 2002). "Gastrointestinal obstruction". Clinical Techniques in Small Animal Practice. 17 (4): 178–183. doi:10.1053/svms.2002.36606. PMC 2480448 Freely accessible. PMID 12587284. "Fat Indoor Cats Need Exercise". Pocono Record. 10 December 2006. Archived from the original on 14 July 2009. This tertiary source reuses information from other sources but does not name them. "Prolific Cats: The Estrous Cycle" (PDF). Veterinary Learning Systems. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 December 2016. Retrieved 19 June 2009. Aronson, L. R.; Cooper, M. L. (1967). "Penile Spines of the Domestic Cat: Their Endocrine-behavior Relations" (PDF). Anat. Rec. 157 (1): 71–78. doi:10.1002/ar.1091570111. PMID 6030760. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 March 2015. Wildt, D. E.; Seager, S. W.; Chakraborty, P. K. (1980). "Effect of Copulatory Stimuli on Incidence of Ovulation and on Serum Luteinizing Hormone in the Cat". Endocrinology. 107 (4): 1212–1217. doi:10.1210/endo-107-4-1212. PMID 7190893. Swanson, William F.; Roth, Terri L.; Wilt, David E. (1994). "In Vivo Embryogenesis, Embryo Migration and Embryonic Mortality in the Domestic Cat" (PDF). Biology of Reproduction. 51: 452–464. doi:10.1095/biolreprod51.3.452. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 September 2015. "Cat Development – Embryology". UNSW Embryology Wiki. University of New South Wales. 6 June 2013. Archived from the original on 8 November 2013. Retrieved 22 September 2013. Tsutsui, T.; Stabenfeldt, G. H. (1993). "Biology of Ovarian Cycles, Pregnancy and pseudopregnancy in the Domestic Cat". J. Reprod. Fertil. Suppl. 47: 29–35. PMID 8229938. Behrend, Katrin; Wegler, Monika (1991). The Complete Book of Cat Care: How to Raise a Happy and Healthy Cat. translated from German by Elizabeth D. Crawford. Hauppauge, New York: Barron's Educational Series. p. 28. ISBN 0-8120-4613-7. Olson, P. N.; Kustritz, M. V.; Johnston, S. D. (2001). "Early-age Neutering of Dogs and Cats in the United States (A Review)". J. Reprod. Fertil. Suppl. 57: 223–232. PMID 11787153. Root Kustritz, Margaret V. (2007). "Determining the optimal age for gonadectomy of dogs and cats" (PDF). Journal of American Veterinary Medicine. 231 (11): 1665–1675. doi:10.2460/javma.231.11.1665. PMID 18052800. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 July 2010. Chu, Karyen; Anderson, W. M.; Rieser, M. Y. (2009). "Population characteristics and neuter status of cats living in households in the United States". Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 234 (8): 1023–1030. doi:10.2460/javma.234.8.1023. PMID 19366332. Randerson, James (6 January 2006). "From Lion to Moggie: How Cats Climbed their Family Tree". The Guardian. London. Say, Ludovic (2002). "Spatio-temporal variation in cat population density in a sub-Antarctic environment". Polar Biology. 25 (2): 90–95. doi:10.1007/s003000100316. Frenot, Y.; Chown, Steven L.; Whinam, Jennie; Selkirk, Patricia M.; Convey, Peter; Skotnicki, Mary; Bergstrom, Dana M. (2005). "Biological Invasions in the Antarctic: Extent, Impacts and Implications". Biological Reviews. 80 (1): 45–72. doi:10.1017/S1464793104006542. PMID 15727038. Invasive Species Specialist Group (2006). "Ecology of Felis catus". Global Invasive Species Database. Species Survival Commission, International Union for Conservation of Nature. Archived from the original on 27 October 2009. Retrieved 31 August 2009. Nogales, M.; Martin, A.; Tershy, B. R.; Donlan, C. J.; Veitch, D.; Uerta, N.; Wood, B.; Alonso, J. (2004). "A Review of Feral Cat Eradication on Islands". Conservation Biology. 18 (2): 310–319. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2004.00442.x. hdl:10261/22249. Invasive Species Specialist Group (2000). "100 of the World's Worst Invasive Alien Species: A Selection from the Global Invasive Species Database" (PDF). IUCN Species Survival Commission. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 31 August 2009. "What is the difference between a stray cat and a feral cat?". Humane Society of the United States. Archived from the original on 1 May 2008. "Torre Argentina cat shelter". Archived from the original on 22 January 2009. Retrieved 17 June 2009. Rowan, Andrew N.; Salem, Deborah J. (November 2003). "4". The State of the Animals II: 2003 (PDF). Humane Society of the United States. ISBN 0-9658942-7-4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 November 2006. "2013 AAFP Feline Vaccination Advisory Panel Report" (PDF). Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery: 9. 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 August 2017. Retrieved 10 August 2017. Robertson, I. D. (1998). "Survey of Predation by Domestic Cats". Australian Veterinary Journal. 76 (8): 551–554. doi:10.1111/j.1751-0813.1998.tb10214.x. PMID 9741724. Beckerman, A. P.; Boots, M.; Gaston, K. J. (2007). "Urban Bird Declines and the Fear of Cats" (PDF). Animal Conservation. 10 (3): 320–325. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1795.2007.00115.x. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 March 2016. Courchamp, F.; Chapuis, J. L.; Pascal, M. (2003). "Mammal Invaders on Islands: Impact, Control and Control Impact" (PDF). Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society. 78 (3): 347–383. doi:10.1017/S1464793102006061. PMID 14558589. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 September 2017. Rayner, M. J.; Hauber, M. E.; Imber, M. J.; Stamp, R. K.; Clout, M. N. (2007). "Spatial Heterogeneity of Mesopredator Release within an Oceanic Island System". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 104 (52): 20862–20865. Bibcode:2007PNAS..10420862R. doi:10.1073/pnas.0707414105. PMC 2409232 Freely accessible. PMID 18083843. Dickman, Chris R. (1996). "Overview of the Impacts of Feral Cats on Australian Native Fauna" (PDF). Australian Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 September 2007. Retrieved 28 August 2009. James, H.; Acharya, A. B.; Taylor, J. A.; Freak, M. J. (2002). "A case of bitten Bettongs". Journal of Forensic Odonto-stomatology. 20 (1): 10–12. PMID 12085522. Glen, A. S.; Dickman, C. R. (2005). "Complex interactions among mammalian carnivores in Australia, and their implications for wildlife management" (PDF). Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society. 80 (3): 387–401. doi:10.1017/S1464793105006718. PMID 16094805. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 September 2017. Liberg, O. (1982). "Food Habits and Prey Impact by Feral and House-based Domestic Cats in a Rural Area in Southern Sweden". Journal of Mammalogy. 65 (3): 424–432. doi:10.2307/1381089. JSTOR 1381089. May, R. (1988). "Control of Feline Delinquency". Nature. 332 (6163): 392–393. Bibcode:1988Natur.332..392M. doi:10.1038/332392a0. Lambert, Mark (September 2003). Control of Norway Rats in the Agricultural Environment: Alternatives to Rodenticide Use (PDF) (PhD). University of Leicester. pp. 85–103. Davis, David E. (1957). "The Use of Food as a Buffer in a Predator–Prey System". Journal of Mammalogy. 38 (4): 466. doi:10.2307/1376399. ISSN 0022-2372. JSTOR 1376399. Wodzicki, K. (1973). "Prospects for biological control of rodent populations". Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 48 (4): 461–467. PMC 2481104 Freely accessible. PMID 4587482. "You thought watching cat videos was harmless fun? Think Again". The Register. Archived from the original on 3 November 2014. Retrieved 9 September 2014. Chucher, P. B.; Lawton, J. H. (1987). "Predation by Domestic Cats in an English village". Journal of Zoology, London. 212 (3): 439–455. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1987.tb02915.x. Mead, C. J. (1982). "Ringed birds killed by cats". Mammal Review. 12 (4): 183–186. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2907.1982.tb00014.x. Crooks, Kevin R.; Soul, Michael E. (1999). "Mesopredator Release and Avifaunal Extinctions in a Fragmented System" (PDF). Nature. 400 (6744): 563–566. Bibcode:1999Natur.400..563C. doi:10.1038/23028. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 July 2011. Fitzgerald, M. B.; Turner, Dennis C. "Hunting Behaviour of Domestic Cats and Their Impact on Prey Populations". In Turner & Bateson. The Domestic Cat: The Biology of its Behaviour. pp. 151–175. Courchamp, F.; Langlais, M.; Sugihara, G. (1999). "Cats protecting birds: modelling the mesopredator release effect". Journal of Animal Ecology. 68 (2): 282–292. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2656.1999.00285.x. Stattersfield, A. J.; Crosby, M. J.; Long, A. J.; Wege, D. C. (1998). Endemic Bird Areas of the World: Priorities for Biodiversity Conservation. "BirdLife Conservation Series" No. 7. Cambridge, England: Burlington Press. ISBN 0-946888-33-7. Williams, A. J. (1984). "Status and Conservation of Seabirds at some Islands in the African Sector of the Southern Ocean". In Croxall, J. P.; Evans, P. G. H.; Schreiber, R. W. Status and Conservation of the World's Seabirds. Cambridge, England: International Council for Bird Preservation. pp. 627–635. Falla, R. A. (1955). New Zealand Bird Life Past and Present. Cawthron Institute.[page needed] Galbreath, R.; Brown, D. (2004). "The Tale of the Lighthouse-keeper's Cat: Discovery and Extinction of the Stephens Island Wren (Traversia lyalli)" (PDF). Notornis. 51: 193–200. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 October 2008. Retrieved 14 December 2011. Dowding, J. E.; Murphy, E. C. (2001). "The Impact of Predation be Introduced Mammals on Endemic Shorebirds in New Zealand: A Conservation Perspective". Biological Conservation. 99: 47–64. doi:10.1016/S0006-3207(00)00187-7. Whiting, M. F.; Bradler,, S.; Maxwell,, T. (2003). "Loss and Recovery of Wings in Stick Insects". Nature. 421 (6920): 264–267. Bibcode:2003Natur.421..264W. doi:10.1038/nature01313. PMID 12529642. World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1992). Groombridge, Brian, ed. Global Biodiversity: Status of the Earth's Living Resources. Chapman & Hall. ISBN 0-412-47240-6. Steadman, D. W.; Martin, P. S. (2003). "The Late Quaternary Extinction and Future Resurrection of Birds on Pacific Islands". Earth Science Reviews. 61: 133–147. Bibcode:2003ESRv...61..133S. doi:10.1016/S0012-8252(02)00116-2. Ellin, Abby (5 October 2008). "More Men Are Unabashedly Embracing Their Love of Cats". New York Times. Archived from the original on 5 October 2011. Retrieved 30 August 2009. Jones, Jeffrey M. (30 November 2007). "Companionship and Love of Animals Drive Pet Ownership". Gallup Inc. Archived from the original on 25 July 2009. Retrieved 30 August 2009. "What Is That They're Wearing?" (PDF). Humane Society of the United States. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 December 2006. Retrieved 22 October 2009. Stallwood, Kim W., ed. (2002). A Primer on Animal Rights: Leading Experts Write about Animal Cruelty and Exploitation. Lantern Books. "Japan: Finale for the world's most elegant use of a dead cat". The Independent. 15 November 1997. Archived from the original on 21 June 2017. "EU proposes cat and dog fur ban". BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. 20 November 2006. Archived from the original on 2 January 2009. Retrieved 22 October 2009. Ikuma, Carly (27 June 2007). "EU Announces Strict Ban on Dog and Cat Fur Imports and Exports". HSUS.org. Humane Society International. Archived from the original on 17 February 2009. Retrieved 14 December 2011. Witchcraft and Magic in Europe, Volume 3: The Middle Ages. Karen Jolly, A&C Black, 2002 Paterson, Tony (25 April 2008). "Switzerland Finds a Way to Skin a Cat for the Fur Trade and High Fashion". The Independent. London, England. Archived from the original on 7 July 2009. Retrieved 23 October 2009. "Humane society launches national cat census". CBC News. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on 24 October 2012. Retrieved 18 September 2012. "Cats Be". Archived from the original on 22 September 2012. Retrieved 18 September 2012. "The Supreme Cat Census". Archived from the original on 16 March 2012. Retrieved 18 September 2012. "About Pets". IFAHEurope.org. Animal Health Europe. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 3 October 2014. Legay, J. M. (1986). "Sur une tentative d'estimation du nombre total de chats domestiques dans le monde" [Tentative estimation of the total number of domestic cats in the world]. Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences, Série III (in French). 303 (17): 709–712. PMID 3101986. INIST:7950138. "Cats: Most interesting facts about common domestic pets". Pravda. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 3 October 2014. "Study Traces Cat's Ancestry to Middle East". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 9 May 2015. Retrieved 3 October 2014. Gehrt, Stanley D.; Riley, Seth P. D.; Cypher, Brian L. (12 March 2010). Urban Carnivores: Ecology, Conflict, and Conservation. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 9780801893896. Archived from the original on 31 December 2015. Retrieved 3 October 2014. Rochlitz, Irene (17 April 2007). The Welfare of Cats. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 9781402032271. Archived from the original on 31 December 2015. Retrieved 3 October 2014. "All About Cat Shows". HowStuffWorks. 2008-04-02. Retrieved 2018-06-08. "All About Cat Shows". HowStuffWorks. 2008-04-02. Retrieved 2018-06-08. "All About Cat Shows". HowStuffWorks. 2008-04-02. Retrieved 2018-06-26. "cat café". Cambridge English Dictionary. Retrieved 6 June 2018. Bartleby: Ailurophobes and Other Cat-Haters Archived 23 December 2017 at the Wayback Machine. "First Aid: Animal Bites". Nemours Foundation. 2017. Archived from the original on 18 May 2017. Retrieved 18 June 2017. "Animal Bites". HandCare.org. American Society for Surgery of the Hand. 2017. Archived from the original on 28 July 2017. Retrieved 18 June 2017. Chomel, Bruno (2014). "Emerging and Re-Emerging Zoonoses of Dogs and Cats". Animals. 4 (3): 434–445. doi:10.3390/ani4030434. ISSN 2076-2615. PMC 4494318 Freely accessible. PMID 26480316. "Cats". Ohio Department of Health. 21 January 2015. Archived from the original on 27 November 2016. Retrieved 26 November 2016. Stull, J. W.; Brophy, J.; Weese, J. S. (2015). "Reducing the risk of pet-associated zoonotic infections". Canadian Medical Association Journal. 187 (10): 736–743. doi:10.1503/cmaj.141020. ISSN 0820-3946. PMC 4500695 Freely accessible. PMID 25897046. Clutton-Brock, Juliet (1999) . A Natural History of Domesticated Mammals (2nd ed.). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. p. 138. ISBN 0-521-63495-4. Muir, Hazel (8 April 2004). "Ancient Remains Could Be Oldest Pet Cat". New Scientist. Archived from the original on 21 December 2007. Retrieved 23 November 2007. Walton, Marsha (9 April 2004). "Ancient Burial Looks Like Human and Pet Cat". CNN.com. Archived from the original on 22 December 2007. Retrieved 23 November 2007. "Gatos fueron domesticados en China hace 5.300 años". La Nación (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 1 July 2014. Retrieved 9 September 2014. Mason, I. L. (1984). Evolution of Domesticated Animals. Prentice Hall Press. ISBN 0-582-46046-8. Mark, Joshua J. (17 February 2012). "Cats in the Ancient World". Ancient.eu. Ancient History Encyclopedia Ltd. Archived from the original on 2 January 2018. Engels, Donald W. (2001) . Classical Cats: The Rise and Fall of the Sacred Cat. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-26162-7. Rogers, Katherine M. (2006). Cat. London: Reaktion Books. pp. 18–20. ISBN 978-1-86189-292-8. Beadle, Muriel (1977). Cat. New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 76. ISBN 978-0671224516. Pate, Alan (2008). "Maneki Neko: Feline Fact & Fiction". Daruma Magazine. Amagasaki, Japan: Takeguchi Momoko. Archived from the original on 30 December 2012. Retrieved 30 December 2012. Faulkes, Anthony (1995). Edda. p. 24. ISBN 0-460-87616-3. Ginzberg, Louis (1909). The Legends of the Jews, Vol. I: The Sixth Day (PDF). Translated by Szold, Henrietta. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society. Geyer, Georgie Anne (2004). When Cats Reigned Like Kings: On the Trail of the Sacred Cats. Kansas City, Missouri: Andrews McMeel Publishing. ISBN 0-7407-4697-9. Reeves, Minou (2000). Muhammad in Europe. New York University Press. p. 52. ISBN 0-8147-7533-0. Al-Thahabi, Shamsuddin. "Biography of al-Rifai". سير أعلام النبلاء (in Arabic). Archived from the original on 25 October 2014. Retrieved 11 November 2014. "Abu Hurairah and Cats". Pictures-of-Cats.org. 13 January 2015. "Are Black Cats Really Bad Luck? [Hoax]". SocialNewsDaily.com. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 19 December 2015. Davies, Norman (1996). Europe: A History. Oxford University Press. p. 543. ISBN 0-198-20171-0. Frazer, Sir James George. The Golden Bough, (1922). Online version. Archived 8 December 2006 at the Wayback Machine. Sugobono, Nora (7 March 2010). "Las vidas del gato". El Comercio (in Spanish). Lima, Peru. Archived from the original on 27 January 2012. Retrieved 19 March 2010. "Qual é a origem da lenda de que os gatos teriam sete vidas?". Mundo Estranho (in Portuguese). São Paulo, Brazil: Abril Media. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 15 November 2015. Dowling, Tim (19 March 2010). "Tall tails: Pet myths busted". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 9 September 2013. Retrieved 18 March 2010. "The ASPCA Warns About High-Rise Falls by Cats: High-Rise Apartments, Windows, Terraces and Fire Escapes Pose Risk to Urban Cats". New York: American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. 30 June 2005. Archived from the original on 22 May 2012. Retrieved 6 June 2018 – via About.com. (Press release.) External links Listen to this article (3 parts) · (info) Part 1 • Part 2 • Part 3
This audio file was created from a revision of the article "Cat" dated 2007-05-13, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. (Audio help) More spoken articles The dictionary definition of cat at Wiktionary Data related to Cat at Wikispecies Media related to Cat at Wikimedia Commons Animal Care at Wikibooks Quotations related to Cat at Wikiquote Wikisource-logo.svg "Cat, Domestic, The". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920. High-Resolution Images of the Cat Brain Biodiversity Heritage Library bibliography for Felis catus Catpert. The Cat Expert – Cat articles View the cat genome in Ensembl vte Domestic cats Felinology Anatomy Genetics Dwarf cat Kitten Odd-eyed cat Squitten Coat genetics Bicolor cat Black cat Calico cat Tabby cat Tortoiseshell cat Health Aging Declawing Diet dental health senior Neutering Spaying Vaccination Behavior Body language Catfight Catnip Communication Meow Purr Kneading Intelligence Play and toys Righting reflex Senses Human–cat interaction Ailurophobia Animal-assisted therapy Cat cafés Cat massage Cat meat Cat-scratch disease Cat show Cats in ancient Egypt Cultural depictions Farm cat Feral cat Cats and Islam Puppy cat Ship's cat Zoonosis Registries American Cat Fanciers Association Associazione Nazionale Felina Italiana Canadian Cat Association Cat Aficionado Association Cat Fanciers' Association Fédération Internationale Féline Governing Council of the Cat Fancy Southern Africa Cat Council The International Cat Association World Cat Congress World Cat Federation Breeds (full list) (experimental breeds) Fully domestic Abyssinian American Curl American Shorthair Balinese Brazilian Shorthair British Shorthair Birman Bombay Burmese California Spangled Chartreux Chinese Li Hua Colorpoint Shorthair Cornish Rex Cymric Devon Rex Donskoy Egyptian Mau European Shorthair Exotic Shorthair German Rex Himalayan Japanese Bobtail Javanese Khao Manee Korat Kurilian Bobtail Maine Coon Manx Munchkin Norwegian Forest Ocicat Oriental Shorthair Persian Peterbald Pixie-bob Raas Ragdoll Ragamuffin Russian Blue Scottish Fold Selkirk Rex Siamese Siberian Singapura Snowshoe Somali Sphynx Thai Traditional Persian Tonkinese Toyger Turkish Angora Turkish Van Hybrid Bengal Chausie Highlander Savannah Serengeti Landraces Aegean Cyprus Domestic long-haired Domestic short-haired Kellas Sokoke Van Diseases and disorders Acne Asthma Calicivirus Congenital sensorineural deafness Flea Heartworm Hepatic lipidosis Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy Immunodeficiency virus Infectious peritonitis Leukemia virus Lower urinary tract disease Panleukopenia Polydactyly Rabies Ringworm Roundworm Skin disorders Tick Toxoplasmosis Viral rhinotracheitis Wikipedia book Book Category Category Portal Portal vte Extant Carnivora species Taxon identifiers Wikidata: Q20980826 EoL: 4443860 EPPO: FELIDO Fossilworks: 104159 GBIF: 2435035 iNaturalist: 118552 IRMNG: 10196305 ITIS: 183798 MSW: 14000031 NBN: NHMSYS0000080189 NCBI: 9685 NZOR: 7d7d7c68-baa8-4908-bdc4-b747950f6318 Authority control GND: 4030046-8 HDS: 41559 NARA: 10647397 Categories: Domesticated animalsArticles with text from the Nubian languages collectiveCatsMammals described in 1758Cosmopolitan vertebratesInvasive mammal speciesVertebrate animal modelsCat diseases Navigation menu Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog inArticleTalkReadView sourceView historySearch
Search Wikipedia Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Wikipedia store Interaction Help About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact page Tools What links here Related changes Upload file Special pages Permanent link Page information Wikidata item Cite this page Print/export Create a book Download as PDF Printable version In other projects Wikimedia Commons Wikispecies Wikiquote
submitted by Chtorrr
to Chtorrr [link] [comments]
2017.06.10 08:46 tombstoneshadows28 All of the MPAA/CARA-rated films of 2002 (out of the 4,027 films released worldwide that year.)
- Grand Champion (Director: Barry Tubb)
- Jonah: A VeggieTales Movie (Directors: Mike Nawrocki + Phil Vischer)
- Joshua (Director: Jon Purdy)
- Jumping For Joy (Director: Timothy J. Nelson)
- Little Dreams (Director: Jeff Rigler)
- Octave (Director: Shaji N. Karun)
- Noro (Director: Radu Gabrea)
- Pinocchio (Director: Roberto Benigni)
- Pokémon Heroes (Directors: Jim Malone + Kunihiko Yuyama)
- Return To Neverland (Directors: Robin Budd + Donovan Cook)
- Spirit: Stallion Of The Cimarron (Directors: Kelly Asbury + Lorna Cook)
- Tarzan + Jane (Directors: Steve Loter, Lisa Schaffer, Victor Cook + Don MacKinnon)
- The Cat Returns (Director: Hiroyuki Morita)
- The Country Bears (Director: Peter Hastings)
- The Princess + The Pea (Director: Mark Swan)
- The Rookie (Director: John Lee Hancock)
- The Santa Clause II (Director: Michael Lembeck)
- Winnie the Pooh: A Very Merry Pooh Year (Directors: Gary Katona, Ed Wexler + Jamie Mitchell)
- A Walk To Remember (Director: Adam Shankman)
- Ali Baba + The Forty Thieves (Director: Usha Ganesarajah)
- Asterix + Obelix Meet Cleopatra (Director: Alain Chabat)
- Big Fat Liar (Director: Shawn Levy)
- Charly (Director: Adam Thomas Anderegg)
- Children On Their Birthdays (Director: Mark Medoff)
- Clockstoppers (Director: Jonathan Frakes)
- Duct Tape Forever (Director: Eric Till)
- Evelyn (Director: Bruce Beresford)
- Foolish The Wise (Director: Jim Menza)
- Handcart (Director: Kels Goodman)
- Hansel + Gretel (Director: Gary J. Tunnicliffe)
- Harry Potter + The Chamber Of Secrets (Director: Chris Columbus)
- Hey Arnold! The Movie (Director: Tuck Tucker)
- Hometown Legend (Director: James Anderson)
- I Not Stupid (Director: Jack Neo)
- Ice Age (Directors: Chris Wedge + Carlos Saldanha)
- Inferno (Director: Dusty Nelson)
- Lamb To The Slaughter (Director: Nicole Barnette)
- Like Mike (Director: John Schultz)
- Lilo + Stitch (Directors: Dean DeBlois + Chris Sanders)
- Made-Up (Director: Tony Shalhoub)
- Manna From Heaven (Directors: Gabrielle Burton + Maria Burton)
- Mary + Joe (Director: John R. Hamilton)
- My Big Fat Greek Wedding (Director: Joel Zwick)
- Mystery At Sam’s (Director: John Comrie)
- Nicholas Nickleby (Director: Douglas McGrath)
- No Longer My Twin (Director: Robert G. Christie)
- O’key (Director: Oleg Fomin)
- Only In Hollywood (Director: Michael J. Holland)
- Out Of Step (Director: Ryan Little)
- Rabbit-Proof Fence (Director: Phillip Noyce)
- Saint Monica (Director: Terrance Odette)
- Scooby-Doo (Director: Raja Gosnell)
- Snow Dogs (Director: Brian Levant)
- Spooky House (Director: William Sachs)
- Springtime In A Small Town (Director: Zhuangzhuang Tian)
- Spy Kids II: Island Of Lost Dreams (Director: Robert Rodriguez)
- Star Wars: Episode II: Attack Of The Clones (Director: George Lucas)
- Stolen Summer (Director: Pete Jones)
- Stuart Little II (Director: Rob Minkoff)
- The Angel Doll (Director: Alexander Johnston)
- The Calling (Director: Damian Chapa)
- The Calling (Director: Michael C. Brown)
- The Climb (Director: John Schmidt)
- The Crocodile Hunter: Collision Course (Director: John Stainton)
- The Guys (Director: Jim Simpson)
- The Importance Of Being Earnest (Director: Oliver Parker)
- The Master Of Disguise (Director: Perry Andelin Blake)
- The Powerpuff Girls Movie (Director: Craig McCracken)
- The Singles Ward (Director: Kurt Hale)
- The Way Home (Director: Jeong-hyang Lee)
- The Wild Thornberrys Movie (Directors: Cathy Malkasian + Jeff McGrath)
- Thunderpants (Director: Peter Hewitt)
- Time Changer (Director: Rich Christiano)
- Together With You (Director: Kaige Chen)
- Tom + Thomas (Director: Esmé Lammers)
- Touching Wild Horses (Director: Eleanor Lindo)
- Treasure Planet (Directors: Ron Clements + John Musker)
- Tuck Everlasting (Director: Jay Russell)
- Two Men Went To War (Director: John Henderson)
- Virginia’s Run (Director: Peter Markle)
- Warriors Of Virtue II: Return To Tao (Director: Michael Vickerman)
- A Time For Dancing (Director: Peter Gilbert)
- Abandon (Director: Stephen Gaghan)
- About A Boy (Directors: Chris Weitz + Paul Weitz)
- Trilogy: Two (Director: Lucas Belvaux)
- And Now...Ladies + Gentlemen... (Director: Claude Lelouch)
- Antwone Fisher (Director: Denzel Washington)
- Anything But Love (Director: Robert Cary)
- Austin Powers in “Goldmember” (Director: Jay Roach)
- Awara Paagal Deewana (Director: Vikram Bhatt)
- Bad Company (Director: Joel Schumacher)
- Barbershop (Director: Tim Story)
- Bend It Like Beckham (Director: Gurinder Chadha)
- Big Trouble (Director: Barry Sonnenfeld)
- Blue Crush (Director: John Stockwell)
- Bollywood/Hollywood (Director: Deepa Mehta)
- Boo! The Movie (Director: Michael Lansu)
- Brown Sugar (Director: Rick Famuyiwa)
- Callas Forever (Director: Franco Zeffirelli)
- Catch Me If You Can (Director: Steven Spielberg)
- Cheats (Director: Andrew Gurland)
- Chicago (Director: Rob Marshall)
- Contagion (Director: John Murlowski)
- Crossroads (Director: Tamra Davis)
- Dark Water (Director: Hideo Nakata)
- Darkness (Director: Jaume Balagueró)
- Dead Weight (Directors: Alain Berbérian + Frédéric Forestier)
- Die Another Day (Director: Lee Tamahori)
- Divine Secrets Of The Ya-Ya Sisterhood (Director: Callie Khouri)
- Dragonfly (Director: Tom Shadyac)
- Drumline (Director: Charles Stone III)
- Eight Crazy Nights (Director: Seth Kearsley)
- Eight Legged Freaks (Director: Ellory Elkayem)
- Enough (Director: Michael Apted)
- Extreme Ops (Director: Christian Duguay)
- Fangs (Director: Kelly Sandefur)
- Far From Heaven (Director: Todd Haynes)
- Far From Home (Director: Zhong Yu)
- Fizzy Bizness (Director: Carl Goldstein)
- Frank McKlusky, C.I. (Director: Arlene Sanford)
- Full Ride (Director: Mark Hoeger)
- Half Past Dead (Director: Don Michael Paul)
- He Loves Me...He Loves Me Not (Director: Laetitia Colombani)
- Heartlands (Director: Damien O’Donnell)
- Hero (Director: Yimou Zhang)
- High Crimes (Director: Carl Franklin)
- Hollywood Ending (Director: Woody Allen)
- I Spy (Director: Betty Thomas)
- In America (Director: Jim Sheridan)
- In Your Face (Director: Tim Tommasino)
- In The Wrong Hands (Directors: Chris Johnston + James A. Seale)
- John Q (Director: Nick Cassavetes)
- Juwanna Mann (Director: Jesse Vaughan)
- K-19: The Widowmaker (Director: Kathryn Bigelow)
- Kung Pow: Enter The Fist (Director: Steve Oedekerk)
- L’amore imperfetto (Director: Giovanni Davide Maderna)
- Landspeed (Director: Christian McIntire)
- Left Behind II: Tribulation Force (Director: Bill Corcoran)
- Life Or Something Like It (Director: Stephen Herek)
- Local Boys (Director: Ron Moler)
- Lone Star State Of Mind (Director: David Semel)
- Maid In Manhattan (Director: Wayne Wang)
- Men In Black II (Director: Barry Sonnenfeld)
- Mi Amigo (Director: Milton Brown)
- Minority Report (Director: Steven Spielberg)
- Moonlight Mile (Director: Brad Silberling)
- Mr. Deeds (Director: Steven Brill)
- My Name Is Tanino (Director: Paolo Virzi)
- Nobody’s Life (Director: Eduard Cortés)
- Orange County (Director: Jake Kasdan)
- Passionada (Director Dan Ireland)
- Possession (Director: Neil LaBute)
- Real Women Have Curves (Director: Patricia Cardoso)
- Reign Of Fire (Director: Rob Bowman)
- Respiro (Director: Emanuele Crialese)
- Returning Mickey Stern (Director: Michael Prywes)
- S1m0ne (Director: Andrew Niccol)
- Sam + Janet (Director: Rick Walker)
- Serving Sara (Director: Reginald Hudlin)
- Shoot Or Be Shot (Director: J. Randall Argue)
- Showtime (Director: Tom Dey)
- Signs (Director: M. Night Shyamalan)
- Silence (The Only Witness) (Director: Tom Whitus)
- Slap Her, She’s French! (Director: Melanie Mayron)
- Solaris (Director: Steven Soderbergh)
- Speakeasy (Director: Brendan Murphy)
- Spider-Man (Director: Sam Raimi)
- Star Trek: Nemesis (Director: Stuart Baird)
- Stealing Harvard (Director: Bruce McCulloch)
- Sunshine State (Director: John Sayles)
- Sweet Home Alabama (Director: Andy Tennant)
- Swimfan (Director: John Polson)
- Swimming Upstream (Director: Robert J. Emery)
- Terminal Error (Director: John Murlowski)
- The 4th Tenor (Director: Harry Basil)
- The Adventures Of Pluto Nash (Director: Ron Underwood)
- The Bourne Identity (Director: Doug Liman)
- The Code Conspiracy (Director: Hank Whetstone)
- The Count Of Monte Cristo (Director: Kevin Reynolds)
- The Emperor’s Club (Director: Michael Hoffman)
- The First $20 Million Is Always The Hardest (Director: Mick Jackson)
- The Four Feathers (Director: Shekhar Kapur)
- The Hot Chick (Director: Tom Brady)
- The Hours (Director: Stephen Daldry)
- The Last Place On Earth (Director: James Slocum)
- The Lord Of The Rings: The Two Towers (Director: Peter Jackson)
- The Man Without A Past (Director: Aki Kaurismäki)
- The Missing Gun (Director: Chuan Lu)
- The Mothman Prophecies (Director: Mark Pellington)
- The New Guy (Director: Ed Decter)
- The Ring (Director: Gore Verbinski)
- The Scorpion King (Director: Chuck Russell)
- The Sum Of All Fears (Director: Phil Alden Robinson)
- The Third Wheel (Director: Jordan Brady)
- The Time Machine (Director: Simon Wells)
- The Touch (Director: Peter Pau)
- The Transporter (Directors: Louis Leterrier + Corey Yuen)
- The Truth About Charlie (Director: Jonathan Demme)
- The Tuxedo (Director: Kevin Donovan)
- They (Director: Robert Harmon)
- Two Weeks Notice (Director: Marc Lawrence)
- Unconditional Love (Director: P.J. Hogan)
- Undercover Brother (Director: Malcolm D. Lee)
- Undertaking Betty (Director: Nick Hurran)
- Valentin (Director: Alejandro Agresti)
- Villa des roses (Director: Frank Van Passel)
- Whale Rider (Director: Niki Caro)
- Wheelies (Director: Drew Umland)
- White Oleander (Director: Peter Kosminsky)
- Wicked Game (Director: Koichi Sakamoto + Makoto Yokoyama)
- Wicked Spring (Director: Kevin R. Hershberger)
- Wounded Hearts (Director: J.D. Hawkins)
- Zhou Yu de huo che (Director: Zhou Sun)
- xXx (Director: Rob Cohen)
- 100 Mile Ride (Director: Bren Huff)
- 13 Moons (Director: Alexandre Rockwell)
- 13th Child (Directors: Thomas Ashley + Steven Stockage)
- 10 Months (Director: Randall Cole)
- 2009: Lost Memories (Director: Si-myung Lee)
- 24 Hour Party People (Director: Michael Winterbottom)
- 25th Hour (Director: Spike Lee)
- 28 Days Later... (Director: Danny Boyle)
- 29 Palms (Director: Leonardo Ricagni)
- 3 Extremes II (Directors: Peter Ho-Sun Chan, Jee-woon Kim + Nonzee Nimibutr)
- 40 Days + 40 Nights (Director: Michael Lehmann)
- 8 Mile (Director: Curtis Hanson)
- 8 Women (Director: François Ozon)
- 800 Bullets (Director: Álex de la Iglesia)
- 9 Dead Gay Guys (Director: Lab Ky Mo)
- A Gentleman’s Game (Director: J. Mills Goodloe)
- A Housekeeper (Director: Claude Berri)
- A Light In The Darkness (Director: Marshall E. Uzzle)
- A Midsummer Night’s Rave (Director: Gil Cates, Jr.)
- A Snake Of June (Director: Shin’ya Tsukamoto)
- AKA (Director: Duncan Roy)
- About Schmidt (Director: Alexander Payne)
- Adam + Eve (Director: Izidore K. Musallam)
- Adaptation (Director: Spike Jonze)
- Three (Director: Lucas Belvaux)
- Ali G Indahouse (Director: Mark Mylod)
- All About The Benjamins (Director: Kevin Bray)
- All Or Nothing (Director: Mike Leigh)
- Alone (Director: Phil Claydon)
- Amar te duele (Director: Fernando Sariñana)
- American Girl (Director: Jordan Brady)
- American Gun (Director: Alan Jacobs)
- Analyze That (Director: Harold Ramis)
- Angel Blade (Director: David Heavener)
- Angel Of Death (Director: Pepe Danquart)
- Angela (Director: Roberta Torre)
- Angels Crest (Director: J. Michael Couto)
- Ararat (Director: Atom Egoyan)
- Archangel (Director: Sandy Collora)
- Ash Wednesday (Director: Edward Burns)
- Assassination Tango (Director: Robert Duvall)
- Auto Focus (Director: Paul Schrader)
- Avenging Angelo (Director: Martyn Burke)
- Bad Boy (Director: Victoria Hochberg)
- Ballistic: Ecks vs Sever (Director: Wych Kaosayananda)
- Bang Bang You’re Dead (Director: Guy Ferland)
- Bark! (Director: Kasia Adamik)
- Barrio Wars (Director: Paul Wynne)
- Beauty Betrayed (Director: John Quinn)
- Beeper (Director: Jack Sholder)
- Below (Director: David Twohy)
- Bending All The Rules (Directors: Morgan Klein + Peter Knight)
- Better Luck Tomorrow (Director: Justin Lin)
- Between Strangers (Director: Edoardo Ponti)
- Big Ain’t Bad (Director: Ray Culpepper)
- Big Girls Don’t Cry (Director: Maria von Heland)
- Black Mask II: City Of Masks (Director: Hark Tsui)
- Black Point (Director: David Mackay)
- Blade II (Director: Guillermo del Toro)
- Blood Feast II: All U Can Eat (Director: Herschell Gordon Lewis)
- Blood Work (Director: Clint Eastwood)
- Bloody Crisis (Director: Gerald Barclay)
- Bloody Mallory (Director: Julien Magnat)
- Bloody Sunday (Director: Paul Greengrass)
- Blue Car (Director: Karen Moncrieff)
- Boat Trip (Director: Mort Nathan)
- Bolivar Is Me (Director: Jorge Ali Triana)
- Bomb The System (Director: Adam Bhala Lough)
- Broken Wings (Director: Nir Bergman)
- Brother’s Keeper (Director: John Badham)
- Bubba Ho-Tep (Director: Dan Coscarelli)
- Burning Desires (Director: J. Edie Martin)
- Buying The Cow (Director: Walt Becker)
- Cabin Fever (Director: Eli Roth)
- Capone’s Boys (Director: Richard Standeven)
- Castle Eros (Director: Madison Monroe)
- Changing Lanes (Director: Roger Michell)
- Chaos (Director: Geraldine Creed)
- Charlotte Sometimes (Director: Eric Byler)
- Cheerleader Ninjas (Director: Kevin Campbell)
- Cherish (Director: Finn Taylor)
- Chopin. Pragnienie milosci (Director: Jerzy Antczak)
- Ciao America (Director: Frank Ciota)
- City By The Sea (Director: Michael Caton-Jones)
- City Of Ghosts (Director: Matt Dillon)
- City Of God (Directors: Fernando Meirelles + Kátia Lund)
- Civil Brand (Director: Neema Barnette)
- Close Enough To Touch (Director: Jamie Scabbert)
- Close Your Eyes (Director: Nick Willing)
- Coastlines (Director: Victor Nunez)
- Collateral Damage (Director: Andrew Davis)
- Confessions Of A Dangerous Mind (Director: George Clooney)
- Correct Change (Director: Mike Lilly)
- Cottonmouth (Director: James Dalthorp)
- Cover Story (Director: Eric Weston)
- Crazy As Hell (Director: Eriq La Salle)
- Crocodile II: Death Swamp (Director: Gary Jones)
- Cruel Game (Director: Masashi Nagadoi)
- Cube²: Hypercube (Director: Andrzej Sekula)
- Curse Of The Forty-Niner (Director: John Carl Beuchler)
- Cutting Horse (Director: Larry Clark)
- Cypher (Director: Vincenzo Natali)
- Dahmer (Director: David Jacobson)
- Dark Blue (Director; Ron Shelton)
- Dark Heaven (Director: Douglas Schulze)
- De la mano de un ángel (Director: David Aponte)
- Dead Above Ground (Director: Chuck Bowman)
- Dead Heat (Director: Mark Malone)
- Dead In The Water (Director: Gustavo Lipsztein)
- Deadly Little Secrets (Director: Fiona Mackenzie)
- Death To Smoochy (Director: Danny DeVito)
- Deathwatch (Director: Michael J. Bassett)
- Deep Freeze (Director: John Carl Buechler)
- Defiance (Director: Doveed Linder)
- Dreamlover (Director: Olivier Assayas)
- Derailed (Director: Bob Misiorowski)
- Descent Into Darkness (Director: Daniel Knauf)
- Desert Saints (Director: Richard Greenberg)
- Deuces Wild (Director: Scott Kalvert)
- Devious Beings (Director: Chris Mazzei)
- Dirty Deeds (Director: David Caesar)
- Dirty Pretty Things (Director: Stephen Frears)
- Dog Soldiers (Director: Neil Marshall)
- Don’t Let Go (Director: Max Myers)
- Double Vision (Director: Kuo-Fu Chen)
- Dummy (Director: Greg Pritikin)
- Edge Of Madness (Director: Anne Wheeler)
- El crimen del padre Amaro (director: Carlos Carrera)
- Emmett’s Mark (Director: Keith Snyder)
- Empire (Director: Franc.Ryes)
- Endangered Species (Director: Kevin S. Tenney)
- Engine Trouble (Director: Marc Ickx)
- Equilibrium (Director: Kurt Wimmer)
- Essence Of Echoes (Director: Dustin Rikert)
- Eternal Blood (Director: Jorge Olguín)
- EvenHand (Director: Joseph Pierson)
- Eye See You (D-Tox) (Director: Jim Gillespie)
- Fabled (Director: Ari Kirshenbaum)
- Face (Director: Bertha Bay-Sa Pan)
- Fallen Angels (Director: Ian David Diaz)
- Feardotcom (Director: William Malone)
- Feedback (Director: Teo Konuralp)
- Femme Fatale (Director: Brian De Palma)
- Fish Don’t Blink (Director: Chuck DeBus)
- Food Of Love (Director: Ventura Pons)
- For Da Love Of Money (Director: Pierre Edwards + Mike Williams)
- Frida (Director: Julie Taymor)
- Friday After Next (Director: Marcus Raboy)
- Frogmen Operation Stormbringer (Director: Franklin A. Vallett)
- Fubar (Director: Michael Dowse)
- Full Frontal (Director: Steven Soderbergh)
- G (Director: Christopher Scott Cherot)
- Gangs Of New York (Director: Martin Scorsese)
- Garage Days (Director: Alex Proyas)
- Gerry (Diector: Gus Van Sant)
- Ghetto Dawg (Director: Brian Averill)
- Ghost Ship (Director: Steve Beck)
- GhostWatcher (Director: David A. Cross)
- Ginostra (Director: Manuel Pradal)
- Girl Fever (100 Women) (Director: Michael Davis)
- Global Effect (Director: Terry Cunningham)
- Rock My World (Director: Sidney J. Furie)
- Hooded Angels (Director: Paul Matthews)
- Go For Broke (Director: Jean-Claude La Marre)
- God Is On Air (Director: Jordi Mollà)
- H (Director: Jong-hyeok Lee)
- Halloween: Resurrection (Director: Rick Rosenthal)
- Happy Here + Now (Director: Michael Almereyda)
- Hard Cash (Director: Predrag Antonijevic)
- Hart’s War (Director: Gregory Hoblit)
- Heart Of America (Director: Uwe Boll)
- Heaven (Director: Tom Tykwer)
- High Times Potluck (Director: Alison Thomson)
- Highway (Director: James Cox)
- Hollywood Vampyr (Director: Steve Akahoshi)
- Home Room (Director: Paul F. Ryan)
- House Of Fools (Director: Andrey Konchalovskiy)
- Hustlas (Director: Gabriel Avina)
- I’m With Lucy (Director: Jon Sherman)
- Igby Goes Down (Director: Burr Steers)
- In This World (Director: Michael Winterbottom)
- Infernal Affairs (Directors: Wai-Keung Lau + Alan Mak)
- Infested (Director: Josh Olson)
- Insomnia (Director: Christopher Nolan)
- Interstate 60: Episodes Of The Road (Director: Bob Gale)
- Interview With The Assassin (Director: Neil Burger)
- Jane White Is Sick + Twisted (Director: David Michael Latt)
- Japón (Director: Carlos Reygadas)
- Jet Lag (Director: Danièle Thompson)
- Ju-on: The Grudge (Director: Takashi Shimizu)
- Julie Walking Home (The Healer) (Director: Agnieszka Holland)
- Junk (Director: Stephanie Meurer)
- Just A Kiss (Director: Fisher Stevens)
- Kaante (Director: Sanjay Gupta)
- Killing Me Softly (Director: Kaige Chen)
- King Rikki (Director: James Gavin Bedford)
- Kingston High (Director: Stephen Townsend)
- Kiss The Bride (Director: Vanessa Parise)
- L’auberge espagnole (Director: Cédric Klapisch)
- Lana’s Rain (Director: Michael S. Ojeda)
- Las Vegas Warrior (Director: Natasha Baron)
- Laurel Canyon (Director: Lisa Cholodenko)
- Leather + Iron (Director: James Archer)
- Legend Of The Phantom Rider (Director: Alex Erkiletian)
- Leo (Director: Mehdi Norowzian)
- Liberty Stands Still (Director: Kari Skogland)
- Lilya 4-Ever (Director: Lukas Moodysson)
- Lone Hero (Director: Ken Sanzel)
- Long Time Dead (Director: Marcus Adams)
- Love Liza (Director: Todd Louiso)
- Love Relations (Directors: Michael Hoffman + Delvin Molden)
- Love + A Bullet (Directors: Ben Ramsey + Kantz)
- Love In The Time Of Money (Director: Peter Mattei)
- Love.com (Director: Sherwood Ball)
- Makin’ Baby (Director: Paul Wynn)
- Making A Killing (Director: Ryan Lee Driscoll)
- Malevolent (Director: John Terlesky)
- Man On The Train (Director: Patrice Leconte)
- Married People, Single Sex: The Return (Director: Chanda Fuller)
- Master Of The Game (Director: Jeff Stolhand)
- Max (Director: Menno Meyjes)
- May (Director: Lucky McKee)
- Men With Brooms (Director: Paul Gross)
- Merci Dr. Rey! (Director: Andrew Litvack)
- Minimal Knowledge (Director: Gregory J. Corrado)
- Miranda (Director: Marc Munden)
- Mondays In The Sun (Director: Fernando León de Aranoa)
- Monkey Love (Director: Mark Stratton)
- Morvern Callar (Director: Lynne Ramsay)
- Mr. Smith Gets A Hustler (Director: Ian McCrudden)
- Mulletville (Director: Tony Leahy)
- Murder By Numbers (Director: Barbet Schroeder)
- My Little Eye (Director: Marc Evans)
- Naked Weapon (Director: Siu-Tung Ching)
- Narc (Director: Joe Carnahan)
- Never Get Outta The Boat (Director: Paul Quinn)
- New Best Friend (Director: Zoe Clarke-Williams)
- New Suit (Director: François Velle)
- New World (Director: Peter John Ross)
- Nightstalker (Director: Chris Fisher)
- No Good Deed (Director: Bob Rafelson)
- No Manners (Conduct Zero) (Director: Geun-shik Jo)
- Novo (Director: Jean-Pierre Limosin)
- Now + Forever (Director: Bob Clark)
- Now You Know (Director: Jeff Anderson)
- On The Edge (Director: Fred Williamson)
- One (Director: Lucas Belvaux)
- On_Line (Director: Jed Weintrob)
- Once Upon A Time In The Midlands (Director: Shane Meadows)
- One Hell Of A Christmas (Director: Shaky Gonzalezz)
- One Hour Photo (Director: Mark Romanek)
- Open Hearts (Director: Susanne Bier)
- Outside The Law (Director: Jorge Montesi)
- Outta Time (Director: Lorena David)
- P.S. Your Cat Is Dead! (Director: Steve Guttenberg)
- Paid In Full (Director: Charles Stone III)
- Pandora’s Box (Director: Rob Hardy)
- Panic (Air Panic) (Director: Bob Misiorowski)
- Panic Room (Director: David Fincher)
- Paper Soldiers (Directors: David Daniel + Damon Dash)
- Partners In Action (Director: Sidney J. Furie)
- People I Know (Director: Daniel Algrant)
- Personal Velocity (Director: Rebecca Miller)
- Phase IV (Director: Bryan Goeres)
- Phone (Director: Byeong-ki Ahn)
- Phone Booth (Director: Joel Schumacher)
- Pipe Dream (Director: John Walsh)
- Poolhall Junkies (Director: Mars Callahan)
- Pressure (Director: Richard Gale)
- Pumpkin (Directors: Anthony Abrams + Adam Larson Broder)
- Punch (Director: Guy Bennett)
- Punch-Drunk Love (Director: Paul Thomas Anderson)
- Punto y aparte (Director: Paco del Toro)
- Pure (Director: Gillies MacKinnon)
- Purpose (Director: Alan Ari Lazar)
- Queen Of The Damned (Director: Michael Rymer)
- Quicksand (Director: Sam Firstenberg)
- R.I.C.C.O. (Director: Shawn Woodard)
- R.S.V.P. (Director: Mark Anthony Galluzzo)
- Rachel’s Attic (Director: David Tybor)
- Raising Victor Vargas (Director: Peter Sollett)
- Reality Check (Director: Rafal Zielinski)
- Reckoning (Director: Jason Rodriguez)
- Red Dragon (Director: Brett Ratner)
- Repli-Kate (Director: Frank Longo)
- Resident Evil (Director: Paul W.S. Anderson)
- Returner (Director: Takashi Yamazaki)
- Revenge Of The Unhappy Campers (Director: Shawnee Mercer)
- Steal (Director: Gérard Pirès)
- Ripley’s Game (Director: Liliana Cavani)
- Ritual (Tales From The Crypt presents) (Director: Avi Nesher)
- Road To Perdition (Director: Sam Mendes)
- Roger Dodger (Director: Dylan Kidd)
- Rollerball (Director: John McTiernan)
- Ronnie (Director: Christopher Haifley)
- Rub + Tug (Director: Soo Lyu)
- Run Ronnie Run (Director: Troy Miller)
- Samurai (Director: Giordano Gederlini)
- Savage Messiah (Director: Mario Azzopardi)
- Savage Roses (Director: James Tucker)
- Scorcher (Director: James Seale)
- Searching For Paradise (Director: Myra Paci)
- Second To Die (Director: Brad Marlowe)
- Secret Pleasures (Director: Michael Paul Girard)
- Secretary (Director: Steven Shainberg)
- Sex Is Comedy (Director: Catherine Breillat)
- Sex + The Teenage Mind (Director: Donald L. Gold)
- Shattered Lies (Director: Gerry Lively)
- Shooters (Directors: Glenn Durfort + Colin Teague)
- Shottas (Director: Cess Silvera)
- Skins (Director: Chris Eyre)
- Slackers (Director: Dewey Nicks)
- Slash (Director: Neal Sundstrom)
- Snake Island (Director: Wayne Crawford)
- Snapshots (Director: Rudolf van den Berg)
- So Close (Director: Corey Yuen)
- Sonny (Director: Nicholas Cage)
- Sorority Boys (Director: Wallace Wolodarsky)
- Speck (Director: Keith Walley)
- Spider (Director: David Cronenberg)
- Spider’s Web (Director: Paul Levine)
- Spun (Director: Jonas Åkerlund)
- Stark Raving Mad (Directors: Drew Daywalt + David Schneider)
- State Property (Director: Abdul Malik Abbott)
- Storm Watch (Director: Terry Cunningham)
- Strange Hearts (Director: Michelle Gallagher)
- Super Sucker (Director: Jeff Daniels)
- Survival Island (Directors: David Hillenbrand + Scott Hillenbrand)
- Sweet Sixteen (Director: Ken Loach)
- Swept Away (Director: Guy Ritchie)
- Swindle (Director: K.C. Bascombe)
- Sympathy For Mr. Vengeance (Director: Chan-wook Park)
- Taboo (Director: Max Makowski)
- Talk To Her (Director: Pedro Almodóvar)
- Tattoo, A Love Story (Director: Richard W. Bean)
- Bundy (Director: Matthew Bright)
- Teddy Bears’ Picnic (Director: Harry Shearer)
- Teknolust (Director: Lynn Hershman-Leeson)
- Ten Tiny Love Stories (Director: Rodrigo Garcia)
- The Anarchist Cookbook (Director: Jordan Susman)
- The Badge (Director: Robby Henson)
- The Banger Sisters (Director: Bob Dolman)
- The Barber (Director: Michael Bafaro)
- The Black Magic (Director: Marc-Ivan O’Gorman)
- The Brooklyn Boys (Director: John Bianco)
- The Burial Society (Director: Nicholas Racz)
- The Circle (Director: Sidney J. Furie)
- The Circuit (Director: Jalal Merhi)
- The Coast Guard (Director: Ki-duk Kim)
- The Code (Director: Manuel Boursinhac)
- The Cuckoo (Director: Aleksandr Rogozhkin)
- The Dancer Upstairs (Director: John Malkovich)
- The Dangerous Lives Of Altar Boys (Director: Peter Care)
- The Escapist (Director: Gillies MacKinnon)
- The Eye (Directors: Danny Pang + Oxide Chun Pang)
- The Final Curtain(Director: Patrick Harkins)
- The Frightening (Director: David DeCoteau)
- The Gatekeeper (Director: John Carlos Frey)
- The Gathering (Director: Brian Gilbert)
- The Good Girl (Director: Miguel Arteta)
- The Good Thief (Director: Neil Jordan)
- The Good War (Director: Giorgia Serafini)
- The Greenskeeper (Directors: Kevin Greene, Adam Johnson+ Tripp Norton)
- The Guru (Director: Daisy von Scherler Mayer)
- The Hard Word (Director: Scott Roberts)
- The Heart Of Me (Director: Thaddeus O’Sullivan)
- The House Next Door (Director: Joey Travolta)
- The Hungry Woman (Director: Glenn Robert Smith)
- The Intended (Director: Kristian Levring)
- The M.O. Of M.I. (Director: Susan Turley)
- The Magdalene Sisters (Director: Peter Mullan)
- The Murder (Director: Greg Rempel)
- The Nest (Director: Florent-Emilio Siri)
- The Nugget (Director: Bill Bennett)
- The Other Brother (Director: Mandel Holland)
- The Other Side Of The Bed (Director: Emilio Martinez Lázaro)
- The Perfect You (Crazy Little Thing) (Director: Matthew Miller)
- The Pianist (Director: Roman Polanski)
- The Quiet American (Director: Phillip Noyce)
- The Reckoning (Director: Paul McGuigan)
- The Red Siren (Director: Olivier Megaton)
- The Round + Round (Director: Rod Slane)
- The Rules Of Attraction (Director: Roger Avery)
- The Salton Sea (Director: D.J. Caruso)
- The Scoundrel’s Wife (Director: Glen Pitre)
- The Sea Is Watching (Director: Kei Kumai)
- The Secret Lives Of Dentists (Director: Alan Rudolph)
- The Slaughter Rule (Directors: Alex Smith + Andrew J. Smith)
- The Source (Director: Steve Taylor)
- The Stickup (Director: Rowdy Harrington)
- The Streetsweeper (Director: James Hill)
- The Sweetest Thing (Director: Roger Kumble)
- The Third Society (Director: J.A. Steel)
- The Trip (Director: Miles Swain)
- The Wisher (Director: Gavin Wilding)
- The Year That Trembled (Director: Jay Craven)
- Threat Of Exposure (Director: Tom Whitus)
- Three Days Of Rain (Director: Michael Meredith)
- Till Human Voices Wake Us (Director: Michael Petroni)
- Trance (Director: Gary Dean Orona)
- Trapped (Director: Luis Mandoki)
- Triggermen (Director: John Bradshaw)
- Trojan Warrior (Director: Salik Silverstein)
- Try Seventeen (Director: Jeffrey Porter)
- Turnaround (Director: Jeffrey W. Byrd)
- Twin Sisters (Director: Ben Sombogaart)
- Unborn But Forgotten (Director: Chang-jae Lim)
- Undisputed (Director: Walter Hill)
- Unfaithful (Director: Adrian Lyne)
- Unspeakable (Director: Thomas J. Wright)
- Until Death (Director: Charles Buchanan)
- Vampire Clan (Director: John Webb)
- Vampires: Los Muertos (Director: Tommy Lee Wallace)
- Van Wilder (Van Wilder: Party Liaison) (National Lampoon’s “Van Wilder”) (Director: Walt Becker)
- Vatos (Director: Paul Wynne)
- WXIII: Patlabor the Movie 3 (Directors: Takuji Endo + Fumihiko Takayama
- Waking Up In Reno (Director: Jordan Brady)
- War (Director: Aleksey Balabanov)
- Warrior (Director: Will Harper)
- Warrior Angels (Director: Byron W. Thompson)
- Washington Heights (Director: Alfredo Rodriguez de Villa)
- We Were Soldiers (Director: Randall Wallace)
- Welcome To Collinwood (Directors: Anthony Russo + Joe Russo)
- West Of Here (Director: Peter Masterson)
- Whacked! (Director: James Bruce)
- White Boy (Director: John Marino)
- Wilbur Wants To Kill Himself (Director: Lone Scherfig)
- Windtalkers (Director: John Woo)
- WiseGirls (Director: David Anspaugh)
- Wishcraft (Directors: Danny Graves + Richard Wenk)
- Wolves Of Wall Street (Director: David DeCoteau)
- Wrong Number (Director: Richard Middleton)
- XX/XY (Director: Austin Chick)
- Yesterday (Director: Yun-su Chong)
- Yossi + Jagger (Director: Eytan Fox)
- You Got Nothin’ (Director: Philip Angelotti)
- Zig Zag (Director: David S. Goyer)
- In Our Garden (Director: Giuseppe Andrews)
- The Story Of O: Untold Pleasures (Director: Phil Leirness)
- Thirteen Chimes (13 Curses) (Director: Xavier Villaverde)
submitted by tombstoneshadows28
to movies [link] [comments]
2017.03.28 03:23 JDog413 Jojo's OC Tournament #2 Round 1 Match 24: Steve Genoard and Cole Pineburg VS 2D Delasoul and Seth Turmur
The Results are in! The winner is… Dr. Nick Mason and Null, of the temporary alliance!
Here’s a quick rundown of the match:
|Vote ||Results ||Comments |
|Popularity ||Dr. Nick Mason and Null! ||Score was 5-2 here, a disappointingly low turnout. Hopefully it surges back up for Match 24! |
|Quality ||Dr. Nick Mason and Null! ||3-0 for Pink Dark Boy! Spot o’ deliberation here. |
|JoJolity ||Dr. Nick Mason and Null! ||Honestly, Joey’s JoJolity was pretty much a loose footnote at the end of the strategy. Bit of a miscalculation there. |
As always, the rules are right here,
the lore thread is over here
and you can always PM one of the judges for an invite to our community Discord!
Naples, Italy has not had a good year so far. Early in the year, it had a drought, so the people of the ancient city were happy when what appeared to be a few rogue clouds appeared out of nowhere and watered the city and surrounding fields. Unfortunately, the clouds had not gone away, and the rain had only grown stronger. Baffling every meteorologist on earth at the pure impossibility of the phenomenon, Naples had been covered in rain for over a month, every day and night, constant, hammering rain. Nobody knew what was going on, and nobody had any idea what was happening.
With the exception, of course, of Stand users. Fearing an enemy Stand was doing this to the city, the various gangstars of the city and the Speedwagon Foundation have been searching for the rebellious Stand user, looking to defeat them and restore Naples to a semblance of normality.
While mostly ignored by those searching for Once in a Lifetime, two groups dispatched Stand users to investigate Naples. From Right Now Forever, Seth Turmur and “2D” Delasoul, and from Loca’s Motions, Steve Genoard and Dance Commander. Cole Pineburg
was impressed. When he was sent to Naples with Steve Genoard
, the wackiest member of Loca’s Motions, he’d thought that he was in for a frustrating and pointless few days. However, Genoard seemed in his element. Genoard had given Cole his ever-present umbrella, playing it off that he didn’t need it himself, then proceeded to make the investigation seem as simple as a detective noir movie, investigating rainy warehouses, interrogating shady yet beautiful women, and making deals with mobsters. Honestly, Cole kind of felt like he was the sidekick or something to Genoard.
After dealing with the many false leads that the enemy had put in front of them, they had finally tracked the Stand user to the edge of some rooftops, Steve pointing his Stand at them. However, the Stand user, a slim Spaniard, seemed unperturbed as he was faced down by the duo.
“[Wheel in the Sky].”
He seemed to be listening to the pounding rain.
“Ah, I see. My Stand has told me one of your fates.”
“What are you talking about, criminal! Hands up!”
“Ah, but if I put my hands up, I’ll slip into the streets and be swept into the ocean. The rain told me so!”
Genoard gave a gritty laugh at this. “So is that your Stand ability? Something as weak as listening to what the rain tells you. I wonder how someone like you escaped the gangsters for so long.”
The Spaniard snorted in contempt. “Si. My Stand is pathetically weak. But what the rain tells me is always
true, and I can always
avoid the fates it tells me. For example, one minute ago, it told me I would be caught if I did not go here. Then just now, that if I raised my arms I would slip. But lady fate is not so easily escaped. You, detective, will now have the fate I was promised and be found by an enemy.”
Cole and Genoard whipped around as they heard footsteps in the gale, seeing two people that he and Genoard had been extremely careful to avoid, Seth Turmur and Kevin Delasoul.
Cole felt the rooftop under him disappear as he slipped, sliding down the roof. As he slid off, he called his Stand, [Slim Shady], just barely catching him. He threw himself back up, intent on taking down the Spaniard, his target.
The Spaniard was laughing. “Ah, Mr. Lackey, you have failed! The minute to explain my Stand I took has resulted in another prediction! [Wheel in the Sky] has told me how to avoid this fight!”
“You! Stop! [Slim Shady], bring him back to me!”
The Spaniard seemed to simply slide away from [Slim Shady], then disappeared into the shadows of the roof.
Cole returned his attention to his partner, who had managed to distract the RNF members through empty threats. The Spaniard could be captured another time. He and Genoard had more pressing issues. OPEN THE GAME!
Name: ??? (“The Spaniard”)
Stand Name: [Wheel in the Sky]
Stand Appearance: Clouds, which can be anything from stormy black to fluffy white in color and shape.
Power: E (The clouds have no offense whatsoever. All they can do is rain.)
Speed: E (This Stand is very slow.)
Range: A ([Wheel in the Sky] can go up to 50 miles away from its user.)
Durability: A (It’s far in the air, and cannot really be attacked at all.)
Precision: E (This Stand can only really do one thing, and the user cannot control the predictions from it.)
Ability: [Wheel in the Sky] can rain. This can either be an isolated sprinkle or raging monsoon. This rain is real, but will go back to the Stand as it evaporates. There’s a large amount of rain stored, so the user doesn’t need to worry about that. It could feasibly rain constantly on a city for a matter of weeks.
Whenever it rains, the user of [Wheel in the Sky] hears a piece of advice to avoid some misfortune that will happen to them in the future. They can choose to avoid this misfortune, but at the cost of it being "passed" onto someone else. They can only hear one prediction every minute, and only if there is something in the next hour that affects the user negatively. Location: The rooftops of Naples.
You're about in the middle of the lines of buildings, with one street in between the two teams, that is small enough that anyone can cross relatively easily. The streets below are flooding and have strong tides running through them, and are a no-go zone. It's raining like hell and extremely slippery, so watch your step!
It's the middle of the day, but it's relatively dim and hard to see because of the rainstorm. There are street lights and the lights from houses up the slope on each roof, so Slim Shady does have options for its manifestation, but lighting matches would be an effort in futility.
|Team* ||Combatant ||JoJolity |
|Loca’s Motions ||Steve Genoard ||"Italian, specifically Naples style.": Keep up a consistent pattern of firing styles or positions, such as hip-shooting, precise aiming, or anything else you wish! The pattern must be at least three steps long! |
|Loca’s Motions ||Cole Pineburg ||"There are 4 cakes! Are they telling me to go die or something?": Finish off Seth Turmur using an item split into exactly four pieces! |
|Right Now, Forever ||David “2D” Delasoul ||"Oh no! Did that stuck-up snob really just say that?!": Only make the words you write have pairs in some form of wordplay! You may choose the exact style of wordplay, such as alliteration or rhyming, but you have to write every second word using that wordplay with the word before it! |
|Right Now, Forever ||Seth Turmur ||"Later, he died of a cold.": Defeat Cole Pineburg by getting him into the rapids below, and washing him out to sea! |
|Match Number ||Match Format ||Match Flavor ||Match Location ||Combatant A ||Combatant B ||Date |
|1 ||1v1 ||Deathmatch ||The Gulf of Mexico. A repeat of an old incident. ||Albrecht Durer ||Jason “Gray Jay” Jukes ||December 22nd, 2016 |
|2 ||1v1 ||Objective ||A warehouse in California, holding a secret treasure. ||Christina “Chris” Carlisle ||Adriano Donati ||December 26th, 2016 |
|4 ||1v1 ||Objective ||A sunset-lit highway in Western Kansas. Something’s a bit off, though. ||David L. Palmer ||Jack Mercury ||January 3rd, 2017 |
|5 ||1v1 ||Deathmatch ||The middle of Little Gaborone, a robbery gone wrong. ||Cassandra Johnson ||Bill Dolby ||January 7th, 2017 |
|7 ||1v1 ||Deathmatch ||This is a good enough hint, we feel. ||Stefan C. .Megiddo ||Niban Shosha ||January 15th, 2017 |
|8 ||1v1 ||Deathmatch ||What a nice place, right? ||Dionne ||Kate Smith ||January 20th, 2017 |
|10 ||1v1 ||Objective ||A museum, in the dead of night… Something big is about to happen, though. ||Junky Luck ||Rooftop Singer ||January 28th, 2017 |
|11 ||1v1 ||Objective ||A routine grocery store run. Nothing to see here. ||Nicholas Al-Bach ||Nicola Henderson ||Febuary 1st, 2017 |
|13 ||1v1 ||Deathmatch ||A stoic warrior calls upon two worthy stand users, testing their strength. ||Gami ||Pascal Chaleur ||Febuary 9th, 2017 |
|14 ||1v1 ||Deathmatch ||A crowded nightclub, some valuable intel in the backroom… ||Natsuru Springfield ||Moseph Sabat ||Febuary 13th, 2017 |
|16 ||1v1 ||Deathmatch ||After match 10, a frantic search for a missing clue! ||Rick Max ||Don Under ||Febuary 21st, 2017 |
|17 ||1v1 ||Objective ||”We’re going beetle hunting.” ||Elliot J. ||Savage Garden ||Febuary 25th, 2017 |
|19 ||1v1 ||Deathmatch ||Newcastle, England. A long river crossing. ||Kewlin Ciudad ||Nermin Reeds ||March 5th, 2017 |
|20 ||1v1 ||Objective ||Why the hell would a wolf kick dogs!? ||Viviana Bianchi ||Michael Sembello ||March 10th, 2017 |
|22 ||1v1 ||Deathmatch ||The first baseball game of the season, with a clue to the treasure supposed to be shown during the game. ||Dr. Francesca Marvel ||Felix “Fat Rat” Arrowsmith ||March 18th, 2017 |
|23 ||1v1 ||Objective ||“God's will and Fate -which Pucci dubs "Gravity”” ||Null ||Nick Mason ||March 22nd, 2017 |
|Match Number ||Match Format ||Match Flavor ||Match Location ||Team A (1) ||Team A (2) ||Team B (1) ||Team B (2) ||Date |
|3 ||2v2 ||Deathmatch ||Centralia, Pennsylvania. Can you beat your opponent in the dead of night? ||Airis Ani ||Kenneth Masters ||James Burton ||Sigmund “Ziggy” Tremaine ||December 30th, 2016 |
|6 ||2v2 ||Objective ||A televised game show, with every contestant being one of two teams of Stand users attempting to win an artifact containing a clue! ||Marco Forneira ||Spandau Ballet ||Leonard Davis ||Farewell Angelina ||January 11th, 2017 |
|9 ||2v2 ||Deathmatch ||A battle inside of a knife emporium. Knives of all shapes and sizes available for use! ||Donatello Blackwelll ||Felix Down ||Rip van Winkle ||James Creech ||January 24th, 2017 |
|12 ||2v2 ||Objective ||We think this all that needs to be said. ||Presto ||Cassandra Corazon ||Evan Lain ||Kenny Nixon ||Febuary 5th, 2017 |
|15 ||2v2 ||Objective ||What is this, Indiana Jones? Temples aren’t supposed to do this! ||Famoso Pietraduro ||Dr. Floyd Feelgood ||Duke Rhayader ||Dana Davis ||Febuary 17th, 2017 |
|18 ||2v2 ||Objective ||A cooking show, on Live TV. The prize: A clue to the location of the treasure! ||Diamond Boy ||Duvelleroy ||Huey Lewis ||James Chance ||March 2nd, 2017 |
|21 ||2v2 ||Deathmatch ||Tag team wrestling match! It’s the biggest event of the year, and the main event is four bizarre people! ||Stefania Sandu ||Dr. Alice Slash ||Harvey Harold Hillhouse ||Elio Valez ||March 14th, 2017 |
|24 ||2v2 ||Deathmatch ||It’s been raining quite a lot in Naples lately…. ||Seth Turnur ||Kevin Delasoul ||Cole Pineburg ||Steve Genoard ||March 26th, 2017 |
|Reddit Name ||User Name ||Stand Name ||Team ||Status |
|u/Zanegaru ||Junky Luck ||Robot Parade ||Sunset Company ||Active |
|u/pm_ur_veggie_garden ||Diamond Boy ||Dirty Dancer ||Sunset Company ||RETIRED |
|u/Mightymindsoup ||Elliot J ||Love Bites ||Sunset Company ||Active |
|u/johntindlemen ||Adriano Donati ||Clearest Blue ||Sunset Company ||Active |
|u/boredCommentator ||Duvelleroy ||Great King Rat ||Sunset Company ||RETIRED |
|u/jem_rye ||Albrecht Durer ||Just Push Play ||Sunset Company ||Active |
|u/Shark_Steel ||Duke Rhayader ||What is Love ||Sunset Company ||RETIRED |
|u/Strange_Bean ||Dana Davis ||Stay ||Sunset Company ||RETIRED |
|u/phinsa123 ||Jack Mercury || Mötley Crüe ||Temperance Machine ||Active |
|u/Unknowni123 ||Stefania Sandu ||Rich Girl ||Temperance Machine ||RETIRED |
|u/YoloSwagginsV12 ||Nicola Henderson ||Exmilitary ||Temperance Machine ||Active |
|u/Otha_Joestar ||Savage Garden ||Jungle Love! ||Temperance Machine ||Active |
|u/Bentonic64 ||James Creech ||Northern Hues ||Temperance Machine ||RETIRED |
|u/Nivrap ||Dionne ||Stained Glass Heart ||Temperance Machine ||Active |
|u/Quickdrawnmoron ||Dr. Alice Slash ||Mississippi Queen ||Temperance Machine ||Active (1 KO) |
|u/bauccgia0 ||Rip Van Winkle ||Self Called Nowhere ||Temperance Machine ||RETIRED |
|u/KiwiArms ||David "2D" Delasoul ||Feel Good Ink ||Right Now, Forever ||Active |
|u/SweaterSnake ||Spandau Ballet ||Paint Box ||Right Now, Forever ||Active |
|u/Toedpens ||Seth Turmur ||Heart of the Sunrise ||Right Now, Forever ||Active |
|u/Dead_Star_World ||Cassandra Johnson ||Getaway ||Right Now, Forever ||Active |
|u/farispie ||Nermin Reeds ||Spooky Skeleton ||Right Now, Forever ||RETIRED |
|u/PerPapple ||Christina “Chris” Carlisle ||Shadow on the Wall ||Right Now, Forever ||Active |
|u/Skelly-Tan ||Marco Forneira ||Man Eater ||Right Now, Forever ||Active |
|u/WoobidyWoo ||Stefan C. Megiddo ||Switch - 625 ||Right Now, Forever ||Active |
|u/Leafsw0rd ||Rooftop Singer ||Wintergatan ||(Cannot Decide on a Name) ||Active |
|u/TheMysteriousDoc ||Sigmund “Ziggy” Tremaine ||Demon Days ||(Cannot Decide on a Name) ||Active (2 KOs) |
|u/HeavenAscensionTaric ||Erick "Rick Max" Maximilian ||Withered Delilah ||(Cannot Decide on a Name) ||Active |
|u/NowWithPulp ||James Chance ||Electric Avenue ||(Cannot Decide on a Name) ||Active (2 KOs) |
|u/Slaycube ||James Burton ||Of Wolf and Man ||(Cannot Decide on a Name) ||Active (2 KOs) |
|u/Addem_Up ||Huey Lewis ||Change of Heart ||(Cannot Decide on a Name) ||Active (2 KOs) |
|u/Sh0tgunLlama ||Felix “Fat Rat” Arrowsmith ||Set in Stone ||(Cannot Decide on a Name) ||Active |
|u/ChocolateDiscloud ||Bill Dolby ||It’s Raining Men ||(Cannot Decide on a Name) ||Active |
|u/CPU_Dragon ||DJ ||Rasputin ||(Cannot Decide on a Name) ||Active |
|u/rederister ||Michael Sembello ||Automatic Man ||Diamond Dogs ||Active |
|u/Repider ||Jason “Gray Jay” Jukes ||Hush ||Diamond Dogs ||Active |
|u/Calumba ||Dr. Francesca Marvel ||Ting Tings ||Diamond Dogs ||RETIRED |
|u/anxientdesu ||Airis Ani ||Musical Star ||Diamond Dogs ||RETIRED |
|u/JinxTheFrosslass ||Farewell Angelina ||Chains of Love ||Diamond Dogs ||Active |
|u/yelualstar ||Kenneth “Ken” Masters ||Leather Rebel ||Diamond Dogs ||RETIRED |
|u/Ongsay ||Moseph Sabat ||Digital Lover ||Diamond Dogs ||Active |
|u/SilverJakler ||Leonard Davis ||Ace of Spades ||Diamond Dogs ||Active |
|u/KantuK ||Kewlin Cuidad ||Smooth Criminal ||Loca's Motions ||Active |
|u/VforVanarchy ||Presto ||Fly By Night ||Loca's Motions ||Active (2 KOs) |
|u/spyguy318 ||Dr. Nick Mason ||Dark Side of the Moon ||Loca's Motions ||Active |
|u/Ronandstone ||Cole Pineburg ||Slim Shady ||Loca's Motions ||Active |
|u/Drebin996 ||Kate Smith ||Cibo Matto ||Loca's Motions ||Active |
|u/Tesla__Coil ||Cassandra Corazon ||Through the Fire and Flames ||Loca's Motions ||Active (2 KOs) |
|u/ArtisanBubblegum ||Steve Genoard ||Dance Comander ||Loca's Motions ||Active |
|u/SP-Q-R ||Viviana “Vivi” Bianchi ||Noisy Pink Bubbles ||Loca's Motions ||Active |
|u/Serefin99 ||Steppen ||Born to be Wild ||Loca’s Motions ||Active |
|u/Ismat_Urbur ||Pascal “Paz” Chaleur ||Canned Heat ||White Stripes ||Active |
|u/SmashPachi ||Evan Lain ||Count on Me ||White Stripes ||RETIRED |
|u/StonedVolus ||David L. Palmer ||Harder, Better, Faster, Stronger ||White Stripes ||Active |
|u/Screedledude ||Harvey Harold Hillhouse ||Flatlands ||White Stripes ||Active |
|u/kljg ||Kenny Nixon ||Grease Lightning ||White Stripes ||RETIRED |
|u/JMBChaos ||Niban Shosha ||Ocean Man ||White Stripes ||Active |
|u/tryburningundam ||Elio Valez ||Danger! High Voltage ||White Stripes ||Active |
|u/NatsuruSpringfield ||Natsuru Springfield ||Evil Woman ||White Stripes ||Active |
|u/CptDouglasJFalcon ||”Waveshaper” ||Wisdom of Rage ||White Stripes ||Active |
|u/webdiings ||Null(Neal) ||Fly Me To the Moon ||The F.L.E.A.s ||Active |
|u/vyhox ||Gami ||Haru Haru ||The F.L.E.A.s ||Active |
|u/Spade4103 ||Don Under ||Hot Space ||The F.L.E.A.s ||Active |
|u/WayofAlexGaming ||Nicholas Al-Bach ||Camera Shy ||The F.L.E.A.s ||Active |
|u/Sullivanity333 ||Dr. Floyd Feelgood ||Moving Pictures ||The F.L.E.A.s ||Active (2 KOs) |
|u/Mosses76 ||Felix Down ||Learn to Fly ||The F.L.E.A.s ||Active (2 KOs) |
|u/FastLikeLightning ||Famoso Pietraduro ||Wayward Son ||The F.L.E.A.s ||Active (2 KOs) |
|u/TornkeS ||Donatello Blackwell ||I Am ||The F.L.E.A.s ||Active (2 KOs) |
submitted by JDog413
to StardustCrusaders [link] [comments]
2016.07.08 16:14 RabbitHats My Top 40 Most Important Bears Entering 2016 - #2: RG Kyle Long
I've analyzed the roster and put together my list of players based on the following:
- Overall perceived talent
- Importance of this player succeeding during the 2016 season
- Depth of their position
- Team's investment in that player
- The amount of alcohol/coffee consumed while pondering over the list
Let's use each of these threads as a discussion for these players and your thoughts on their placement on my Top 40, and how you agree/disagree with what a petulant, wrong-thinking oaf I am. PREVIOUS ENTRIES
#2. Kyle Long
27 Y/O – 6’6” – 288 lb
Chicago loves the Bears, and there’s no city that will embrace a Bear more than when they’re outspoken, aggressive, and passionate for the game of football. Kyle Long was made to be a Bear, and entering a crucial season for his career, he also finds himself graduating into the role of team leader.
Jay Cutler’s time is winding down in the NFL, and the brash, colorful Long wears his heart on his sleeve. Players look to Kyle for his leadership, and his fellow linemen will all count on him to champion their endeavor in a season where the wins and losses of every game will hinge almost exclusively on their health, cohesion, and execution.
The organization views him as a mainstay. He is the first Bears player to be named to 3 straight Pro Bowls since Brian Urlacher accomplished this from 2000-2002. Other Bears who have accomplished this feat in their first three seasons may make you pee a little: Gale Sayers, Dick Butkus, and Mike Ditka, to name a few.
Despite being moved to tackle with little notice on week 1 AND dislocating multiple fingers in that contest, Long weathered the storm of criticism from the Chicago media and mostly from himself to have a season worthy of notice. He was never dominant and played out of his natural position of guard, but his nastiness and athleticism made the transition infinitely less messy than it would have been on a lesser talent.
With his offseason training partner and former high school rival Bobbie Massie joining the Bears to play right tackle, Long has embraced his return to right guard with his usual enthusiasm and humor. In addition to his affability and professionalism on the field, Long’s brutal honesty and hilarious candor are available to the world in his numerous social media exploits, all of which have been generally well-received. He plays and streams video games regularly (taking donations for charity in the process), and embraces the everyman brute role that Chicagoans can’t help but like. Outside of his passions, he doesn’t take things too seriously, or at least not seriously enough to cause any harm.
In short, Kyle Long is an original, and he should never play in another uniform. He represents the city, the franchise, and his teammates well, and entering the prime years of his career, Long should graduate in 2016 into the top 5 guards in the NFL. There are few like him in regards to both his personality and pedigree of talent. I believe 2016 will cement him among the league’s greats.
submitted by RabbitHats
to CHIBears [link] [comments]
2016.07.04 22:17 AnestTsak DVD and Blu-Ray special features list (with YouTube links)
Hi guys! I gathered every special feature video I could find online! Some are missing, though. If you have any more links, please inform me! The ones in italics are the ones I could not find.
Best Buy Bonus DVD
Lost Chronicles Book DVD
- Deleted scenes:
- Sun Cries
- Toasting Jack (Extended Scene)
- How Do I Know You?
Best Buy Bonus DVD
Walmart Bonus Disc
- Lost: On Location:
- Deleted scenes:
- Easter eggs:
- Clip about how foam covers were used to make palm trees look like trees in London
- Audio commentaries:
- Because You Left
- He’s Our You
- ABC Starter Kit
- LOST 100 (Part 1, Part 2, Part 3)
- Lost: On Location:
- Building 23 & Beyond with Michael Emerson (Part 1, Part 2)
- An Epic Day with Richard Alpert
- Making up for LOST Time (Part 1, Part 2)
- Mysteries of the Universe: The DHARMA Initiative
- Deleted scenes (Part 1, Part 2 (The videos contain some more I’ve re-added below)):
- No police
- Jill the Butcher
- Finding LaFleur
- I Think He's One of Ben's People
- Breakfast Time
- Locke's Promise
- Phil's Theory
- Stones & Boulders
- Lost University
- Easter eggs:
Dharma Initiative Orientation Kit Edition
- Audio commentaries:
- LA X, Parts 1 & 2
- Dr. Linus
- Ab Aeterno
- Across the Sea
- Lost in 815: A Crash Course
- The New Man in Charge
- THE END: Crafting A Final Season
- A Hero’s Journey
- See You In Another Life, Brotha
- Lost: On Location:
- LA X, Parts 1 & 2
- The Substitute
- Ab Aeterno
- Happily Ever After
- The Candidate
- Deleted scenes:
- On Guard
- Bearing Fruit
- Maternal Instincts
- A Helping Hand
- The Lab and the Well
- Desmond’s Task
- Lost University: The Master's Program
- Easter eggs:
The Complete Collection
submitted by AnestTsak
to lost [link] [comments]
2014.02.25 01:24 tabledresser [Table] I am actor Michael Emerson (of Person of Interest and LOST). AMA!
Verified? (This bot cannot verify AMAs just yet) Date:
2014-02-24 Link to submission
Last updated: 2014-03-01 00:10 UTC This post was generated by a robot! Send all complaints to epsy.
|Questions ||Answers |
|Can you please get Terry O'Quinn on Person of Interest so that I can enjoy some more alternate universe adventures of Ben and Locke? ||You should know that I'm anxious to work with Terry as soon as possible. But he's a big deal actor and I don't know if they can find a part large enough for him! |
|Also, is Jim Caviezel as serious on set as Reese when the cameras aren't rolling? ||Jim is sometimes serious, but he's very often silly also. So you get a little of everything. He does a lot of funny voices, sings songs, he does a crazy good impression of Christopher Walken. |
|I'm a huuuge fan of your work, Mr. Emerson! What attracted you to Person of Interest? Is there a role that you really wanted but in the end did not get? ||Well, Mr Finch was the role I wanted. And what attracted me was not so much the character but the tone and setting of the show, it had a noir feeling, that kind of late night in New York City, dangerous, paranoid scenario. I liked that. |
|Hey Michael, your character on "Lost" was more misunderstood than evil, and very complex. Do these types of characters appeal to you? ||Oh yes, those are always the best. It's always best to bring ambiguity into play, because an audience will not tolerate you long if you have no mystery. Even if you're playing a pack character like the Sheriff, your job as an actor is to mix that up a bit. Let's say you are the good guy. The actor should find some bad habits in that character, something that makes the audience a little uneasy and keeps them watching. |
|My roommates and I are just finishing watching the whole Lost series(their first time, my third), and your character has been one of my favorites each time. Any thoughts on how the series ended? ||Well I know that lots of people were disappointed, but I was not. I thought it was a beautiful ending, and a satisfying one. And I can't imagine how else they could have wrapped it up. I can defend that proposition at more length, but I imagine that's enough for right now. |
|That being said, what's your favorite piece(or maybe what you think Ben's would be) to use when playing Monopoly? ||Benjamin Linus - let's say the iron. For me personally, when I was a boy I always wanted the race car. But now I might choose the top hat. |
|Hello, Michael! Do you ever read the books that they reference in the script? Who is your favorite author? ||Both on Lost and Person of Interest, the writers have intuited that I'm a big reader. So they always give me interesting books to put on the table or in my hand. And there have been some that I've though "oh, I should probably read this book." Like they gave me Ulysses on Lost once. And just in the course of a day's work, with a good book as your prop, during the time between shots you start skimming through it, you start reading through it. And the set for Person of Interest that I'm at most often is a library, and it's full of books that I'm sure they bought by the ton, and there are a lot of great titles and I'm sure some first editions. |
|What's one thing about yourself that people don't know about you that you wish they did? ||I am a good drawer of pictures, and I'm proud of it. I made my living as a magazine illustrator for ten or fifteen years. I worked for the Times, and all the Dow Jones publications, Psychology Today, Barrons, Business Week, The Atlantic Monthly, The Boston Globe, all sorts of things. |
|Yeah that map you gave Ana Lucia was top notch. ||Okay! |
|How do you feel when people do fan art of YOU? does it feel strange to be immortalized in people's drawings? ||No, I think it's flattering, and it's interesting because I used to draw pictures for a living. So I look at them both as a fellow artist and also as a drawing teacher, so sometimes I will look at a pencil portrait they sent me and I will say something like "oh, they're just on the verge of a breakthrough!" |
|Do you miss working in Hawaii? Did you see and talk with J.J. Abrams a lot or was he already not around so much anymore? ||I have lately felt some nostalgia for Hawaii. I had had enough of it I think when LOST was over, and I thought "this has been lovely, and I don't need to come back again" but then you make attachments there, people and places that you love, certain restaurants and attractions and hiking trails and beaches, and there is nothing quite like having a Mai Tai at Sunset on Waikiki. I think Carrie and I will steal a weekend sometime soon and relive those days. |
| ||I really like J.J., it's not like we run into each other very often though, maybe 3 or 4 times when we were working together. And he was very nice to my mom. When he left the table my mom said "is that your agent?" and I said "no mom, that's my boss, not my agent!" |
|Good day Mr. Emerson! It's very wonderful that you are doing this AMA and big thanks for that! Just yesterday I checked the episode of Law & Order:SVU where you starred, do you remember that one? ||Yes, I've been a reader all my life. I'm reading a non-fiction book called The Drunken Botanist, it's about fermentation, distillation, and all the herbs, berries, barks and spices that go into making alcoholic beverages around the world. Sort of a compendium of lore about alcoholic beverages around the world. And I am just beginning The Goldfinch. |
|The main question is - I noticed narrated some books. Do you have passion for reading (a.k.a big library of Harold Finch)? If yes, then where this passion comes from? And what are you reading right now? ||And I do remember that episode. The thing I most remember about it - this is funny - at that stage, I never got anything without auditioning for it, so I thought 'this is great! but I should ask at least what kind of character it is' and the casting director said "oh it's an academic with a secret." "Great!" i thought! But it turns out his secret is ordering mail-order Nigerian children and killing them. Oh he was a terrible villain. |
|Who was a better partner, Hurley or Mr. Reese? ||That is so much apples and oranges. They are both lovely partners in their own way, but my relationship with Mr Reese is far more nuanced and complicated. |
|What do you think about Mr. Finch? Is there any insight you'd like to give us about the way you play him? ||2) I don't know, I've been playing the part so long I don't even know what I'm doing anymore! My insight into how I play him is to put on those clothes and affect a limp. I guess I do have some sense in real life of what it is to be bookish, or smart, or articulate. And he is those things. but the science of it, I'm not good at computers but I'm happy to read about computer science. 3) You know, it doesn't come up. I don't think about that, I look at him and think "oh he couldn't have possibly played that part, because who could have possibly survived playing the role so dark and physically punishing." I do know that Jim and I both have Catholic backgrounds, and I think it has served as actors to a certain extent. It has given us a taste for or understanding of suffering, and I probably shouldn't have explore that further. |
|How is it like to work with |Jesus Jim Caviezel? |1) Well, it's embarrassing to say, but I do kind of fritter it away. I like to wander the streets of New York and look in windows and go in galleries, I like to take the dog to the park. I like to space out, possibly because the work I do is so focused or requires a lot of focus, it's intense work so I like to have some time to vegetate and sort of reboot. |
|Do you still keep in touch with your fellow cast members from Lost? ||Yes, I'm in touch regularly with Terry O'Quinn and with Jorge Garcia also. |
|Hi big fan from the UK, when i wear a suit... ITS ALL BUSINESS. Q) what was the biggest prank pulled off from set? ||I don't remember any! I'm so the wrong actor to ask this question. I hate pranks on set. I hate practical jokes. And so I never indulge in them and if other people indulge in them, I'm trying to focus on staying in the scene. I like to stay in the work I guess. |
|Juniosenior high band teacher here. Did you play an instrument in school? Also, if Ben were to play an instrument other than the piano, what do you think it would be and why? ||Yes. Oh this is terrible. In the orchestra, I played the oboe. Believe it or not. I was first chair, but then I was the only chair. In the marching band I played percussion. Started out on cymbals, worked my way up through glockenspiel to tenor drum, finally. |
| ||Oh, it would be something obscure and ancient, an old English instrument like a sackbutt, or a shawm, a double reeded instrument. |
|Is it difficult to act so stiff and walk with a limp as Finch? ||No, it's second nature to me now. It's more difficult to do the scenes in flashback where I don't have the limp. It's harder to remember to do it right. |
|Hey Micheal Emerson! I'm a huge fan and I hope you get to answer my questions, thank you for doing this AMA! What was it like voicing The Joker in the Dark Knight Retunrs? ||Well it was really hard work. That is very demanding work, doing those big animated voice characterizations. And it was made the more daunting when I realized what a following a genre franchise like Batman has behind it. A lot of fans who have very definite opinions about it. I'm happy that it went as well as it did. |
|Do you see yourself voicing The Joker again or even portraying him in a film? Thank you again for this AMA, on behalf of this AMA I'd like to commend you on your amazing talent and wish you luck on your current and future projects. ||Oh, to play the Joker in front of a camera, I don't know anyone with any sense who would attempt that for a long time, because it's going to take a long time to forget Heath Ledger. But I would voice him again, it was good work and I think it's fairly successful. Hard work though I must say. |
|Hi Michael, big fan of your work on PoI and Lost! What's the most recent memory you have of experiencing pure happiness? And what's your most memorable happy moment? :) ||Pure happiness… that's kind of hard to define. I have great happiness at family gatherings, events when our nephews are present and our dog is present, it's hilarious and heartwarming and you feel like "this is what it's all about." You have private life happiness, you know, the day that your wife agreed to marry you, that's a happy day. Those landmarks in your life together, finding that first apartment, or getting a dog, or winning awards. When Carrie won the Emmy last september, I was delirious and stupefied from happiness. |
|Did you know Ben was who he was since the beginning or did you also have to ponder if he was indeed Henry the ballooner guy? ||I did not know where they were going, but I figured it out before anybody else told me. About 4-5 episodes into it, I was given some strange directions, and I thought "that's an odd direction if I'm this innocent from Minnesota, why are you making me be so sinister? unless I'm the head of the bad guys." And I went to a director, can't remember which one, and said "Wouldn't it be a kick if I was the head of the Others?" and he blinked twice and said "I can't talk about it." |
|How fun is it to work with Jim Caviezel, Nolan and Sarah? ||It's good fun, for many different reasons. Sarah is a great shot in the arm on our show because she is lively, and funny, and she is just a kick and very well-prepared. We have a lot of fun. Nolan is great. Our show could not be in better hands, I think. I wish I saw more of him because he is in Los Angeles and we film in New York. I'm always happy to see him when I can. And he has given us all a great opportunity to do some lovely work. Jim is also great. We have always gotten along, which is funny because we are such different people. I suppose at the end of the day we have real empathy for one another. We look at each other and see how hard the other is working, and how earnest our wish is for the quality of the show. I like to honor his investments, and the care he brings to his work with me, and that I hope to my work with him. It's a good team, and a delicate thing, and like all relationships both personal and professional, you want to handle it gently. |
|Good afternoon Mr. Emerson. How enjoyable was it for you to work with your wonderful wife Carrie Preston on Person of Interest? What were the pros and cons of working with your significant other? ||Well, the Pros of working with your spouse are that it's fun, and sweet, and strange to see your actress wife on your set. Maybe in the trailer next to you, it's cute and unreal. The acting part is tricky, I have to say. It's easy and we're comfortable with one another, but people say "it must be so easy to play a romantic scene with your wife." It is easy in some ways, but in acting, you have a two-tiered problem. First I have to erase her "Wife-ness" before I can replace it with her character. So you have to tune out all that easiness and familiarity, and you have to make her the stranger that she would be in the world of the narrative. |
| ||Carrie says I'm a little spooky at work. |
|I saw that you and Terry O'Quinn were in line to star in a show called "Odd Jobs" several years ago. Could you tell me a little more about it and why it didn't happen? ||Well, it was a thing we spent a lot of time talking about, and it was a great idea, and it's still a great idea, and maybe someday it will see the light of day. The kernel of the idea for it was that we had both played on LOST guys who had sort of a supernatural power, we could get hit and stand up again, we could get hurt really badly and one episode later and be fine. So we thought what if we told the real story about men in their 50s, how hard it would be to get back up again. We wanted to tell a story of human frailty, of guys who couldn't really do it anymore. We sort of thought it would be a little bit of a comedy, but ultimately it would be a serious show, and we didn't really know. But the more they bought in writers to work on the show, the more "super" we became - "oh look we kicked down a door, oh look we fought 20 men in hand-to-hand combat" - exactly the opposite of what we wanted the show to be. Then I guess it got put on the back burner is the best way to characterize it, but who knows? Someday Terry and I may be sitting in the office at Bad Robot and we may try to fire that thing up again. |
|Did you pick Finch's Glasses yourself? ||Actually, we did. I went with John Glazer, who was designing when we first started the series. The viewer will notice that the glasses are different after the pilot. The show got kind of redesigned between the pilot and the second episode, so I went with the designer to a high-end eyeglasses place and we picked the ones we thought were Mr. Finch, and they have become him. And I went out and bought a new pair of glasses for myself personally that look like his, and I thought "oh that's stupid, now I'm asking for people to recognize me." But it's useful on days when we might forget my prop glasses, in which case I can use mind and the audience won't notice most likely. |
|As an amateur female actor, I find myself frequently jealous of the meaty theater roles for men. Are there any female parts you'd love to play? ||I would want to play the character of Lady Wishfort in The Way of the World. I played it once in Graduate School, I shaved off my eyebrows and my chest hair to do it, but I was too young to do it. I hope I get another chance at it. It may be the funniest role in English ever. |
|If Ben and Finch had a battle of the wits, who'd win? ||Good question. I think maybe Harold Finch might win, because his education is deeper and broader. Ben Linus is more desperate and driven, and maybe that balances that out. I don't know, this is a good one! |
|Hi Michael, #1 Korean fan here. :) You have a great voice. Have you been to Karaoke? If you did, what is your favorite song to sing? ||No, I don't do Karaoke because I have a terror of it. I never do it. It makes me really nervous. For the same reason I won't do improvisation. |
|Hi! Thank you for doing an AMA. Ben Linus was one of the best characters on Lost, especially because of how much his character changed from the beginning to the end. What was your most memorable experience as a cast member on Lost? Or, how has your life changed from Lost? Thanks again! ||There were so many. The most memorable dramatic event in the show was Ben witnessing the assassination of his daughter. As a cast member, I think just working in that beautiful and unreal landscape, day after day, beautiful beaches, mountaintops, jungles, sunsets, it's incredible and one of the most beautiful places a show was set scenically. My life changed in so many big and little ways. The biggest thing I noticed was that people recognize me on the street. They know who I am, and I don't know who they are. |
|What was it like building chemistry with Jim Caviezel, seeing is your characters are so different? ||Well I think we've been fortunate that we are really different actors, and that by some magic, the different-ness of us, the Odd Couple of us, has worked out because you can't calculate that, or buy it, or make it happen. It's a thing to be hoped for, and we have a good kind of odd chemistry. |
|Also, What was your favorite "Ben" related moment from LOST? ||Favorite Ben related moment? I tend to gravitate towards the more humorous moments, and he said some great one-liners. In answer to a question from Locke once, he said "if you're talking about time-traveling bunnies, then yes." But he has one more famous line which is "you guys got any milk?" That is maybe his most immortal line. |
|Do you ever catch yourself acting Harold Finch's limp in real life? ||Only if - and this happened once - if I'm running a scene in my head as I'm walking down the street. And then I think "what are you doing? everyone is probably looking at you as the cuckoo guy from POI." |
|1) What is it that makes your 2 noteable roles so magnetic (in your opinion)? Is it the character, what you bring to the role or perhaps a crazy mix of both? ||1) I don't know why my roles worked! They probably don't work for everyone. Maybe I'm getting out of the way of the writing enough so that the writing is clear. And I'm thinking about the voice of the character. |
|2) In both roles you deal with very "deep" matters... some of which are theoretical, others fictional. From a subject matter point of view, how did you prepare for those roles and the immense detail in sertain issues (POI being a very high end technical/coding background)? Perhaps you find some of this enjoyable outside of acting? ||2) I have to say because I do read a lot, that there aren't many issues that come up on the show that I don't have the beginning of an opinion about. So it seems to me that the character I play in Mr. Finch is just having a conversation with the world just as I would. |
|3) On a more personal note, what (if any) project would you like to be involved in more outside of acting? ||3) I have my charitable inclinations that I am happy I can do more about in my life. I wish I could do more of the legwork of it, though, rather than writing a check, that there was a night a week where I could read aloud to someone who cares to listen. I have my other interests and hobbies that I look forward to someday having time for. |
|What actor would you like to work with that you haven't worked with already? ||I would say to be careful what you wish for, because an actor you adore might not be so much fun, but I do admire Ben Kingsley. So if I looked at a call sheet and saw that it had Ben Kingsley on it, I think that would be a lot of fun. |
|Would you consider you to have a similar personality to Finch? Also, what can we look forward to on Person Of Interest? ||A little bit, maybe. There's always some overlap. For an actor, some part of him always leaks in around the edges. I'm a lot more fun than Harold Finch, but he's a fair amount of fun himself. If he didn't have these damn suicidal missions he was on, he'd be a riot at a party. |
| ||You can look forward to more independent behavior from machines… |
|Hi Michael, just want to say as a fan of you on lost and person of interest you sir have played 2 of the coolest roles ive seen. So i only have one question which is more fun playing a good guy or a bad guy? ||On average, it's more fun to be a villain. I think. That's because the villain is usually a little more complicated than the good guy. But if the good guy is complex, like Mr. Finch is, then that's pretty great too. |
|What is one country that you haven't been to but really want to? ||The country I think I'd most like to visit next is Scotland, particularly the Hebrides, those wind-swept islands off the coast. |
|What is your eyewear prescription? ||And my prescription is really strong, I think it's eight and a half if that means anything to you. |
|Hi, Michael! Greetings from Ecuador! Love POI, so my question goes this way: It's very sad and also very brave that Finch had to renounce his lover. So, for you, what would be the hardest to give up to if you had to make a similar choice? ||No one should have to make those choices. I'm not sure Mr. Finch made the right choice. |
|What's your favourite kind of tea? ||I like it as weak as possible, so usually white tea. The strength of tea goes with its color. The darker the tea, the more caffeine it will have, so white tea is the weakest in terms of caffeine. Then you go through green to gray and brown and black. But I'm a real lightweight. |
|Thanks for being so kind to my wounded warrior buddies and I on set in OCT. Was truly one of the best experiences I have had. Michael you admit your not a tech person, has POI influenced you to be more technical or less with all the surveillance issues that the show and real life NSA scandal have brought to life ? Ps. Did you end up ever watching the outtakes from season 2 that we discussed where it has you screaming at the truck driver for honking ? Lol. ||I don't think there is anything that could make me better at it, but I am more conscious of it now. And I see cameras everywhere. |
|Hi! I loved you in Lost and am so excited I may have caught you in time to answer a question! What was your favorite episode of Lost to film, and if you could have been cast as any other character than Ben Linus, who would it be? ||It would have been great to play Richard Alpert, which was played by Nestor Carbonell, because he was a great, mysterious, time-traveling question mark. Favorite episode to film: we would often shoot out on these lava cliffs on the south side of Oahu. They were barren, they were so swept by the surf and it was always very windy out there. It was a highly dramatic and dangerous setting. There was also an episode where I made a fancy dinner where I had a lot of dialogue and food to prepare in the scene. It was a great acting challenge, with a lot of props. |
|What has been your favorite feature of The Machine? ||Well, there was an episode at the end of season 2 where the Machine was scrambling to protect itself and it seems childlike, that the Machine was caught out with a problem it was not programmed to solve so it tried to defend itself the only ways it knew how. And I felt tenderly about the Machine, and about the idea of a Machine being like that. It's complicated. This AI stuff. It brings up a lot of questions. |
|Hello Mr Emerson. I'm a huge admirer of your work. How do you think or hope Person of Interest will end in the series finale? Also, the characters in person of interest break the law to help others. Would you ever break the law to save someone you love? ||I would hope that there's a way for Reese and Finch to set down their burdens and walk away from it. Yes, if it didn't mean harm for someone else, or if it was not to gain an advantage over others. But there are many rules and statutes and customs that should be challenged, I think. |
|Hi Michael, I'm from Italy. Have you ever listened to your character dubbed in another language? Did you like it? Thanks for the AMA, greetings from Italy! ||I'm anxious to hear me dubbed in any language I can get. I think it would be so funny and so interesting. And I'm hoping someday that somebody at maybe WB or CBS international will get me a little clip of what it sounds like in Italy. |
|I live in Scotland, just outside the capital Edinburgh. We would absolutely love a visit from you! Anyhow, on POI we are beginning to see Harold's character develop through flashbacks of his childhood and how he became involved with technology ect. Have you got a preference or an idea as to how his character develops further as the series progresses? Also, I'm very interested in illustration as I love to draw. Any hints as to how to break into the industry? Thanks! ||I would love to visit Scotland someday! I think it's such a wild and beautiful place. I think the writers are very close to having filled in most of the blanks in the Harold Finch backstory. Except for a big blank space when he was at college, and what he did professionally post-graduation. But that's good, they want to dole that stuff out slowly. |
| ||I think the most important thing for anyone who works in graphics is to draw from life, and to draw for accuracy, not trying to express yourself but trying to capture the world around you accurately. I used to teach drawing. |
|Hi Michael I love the show my question is would you ever be involved in a comic book movie if you had a choice what character would you play? ||Sure. Never say never. but I sometimes think that we are secretly comic book characters on Person of Interest. We're just pretty sophisticated ones, and we're not wearing capes and masks. There's a lot we have in common with graphic novels. |
|I can't thank you enough for doing this, as I'm a huge fan of yours. I was hoping you could tell me if you are as addicted to Lost as we all are? Or is it rather just a job for you? ||I found it gripping. Carrie my wife was always a huge fan. But I wasn't as taken with season 1 as she was. That all changed when I got to Hawaii. |
|What's your favorite stage production that you've ever done and do you see yourself going back to being a stage actor for an extended period of time in the future? ||I sure would like to get back on the stage. I have a number of favorites, but I should always mention Gross Indecency, which is the play that began my career, when I played Oscar Wilde in New York. That was my break. I fondly remember my Broadway debut as well in The Iceman Cometh. |
|Hey Mr Emerson! David from the UK here, and a huge fan of POI! You're doing an excellent job and do not look your age whatsoever. I hope I'm this sexy in specs when I get to your age sir. Anyway! In POI you have your character's younger counterparts, have you had the opportunity to meet these lads and if so did you feel like imparting advice to encapsulate what you created as Harold? ||What you're not thinking is that I'm never in scenes with those guys, so generally, once in a great while I will see some other iteration of Harold Finch, maybe at lunch or something. But all you can do then is say "hi, hope you're having fun, keep up the good work." |
|Where do you think |Henry Gale Benjamin Linus ranks among the top villains in television history? |Oh, it would be inappropriate for me to venture a guess on that question, although I will say that he probably ranks #1 on the amount of beatings he took onscreen. I think he is probably unrivaled in that category. |
|When reading your scripts, do you like to memorize section by section, or memorize the whole thing at once? ||You can't really memorize - well, you probably could - you're probably a theater person. It's not like a play, you don't start chipping away at the whole, you're going to do it scene by scene as it comes up during the shooting schedule. |
|Hello Michael .What is your favorite artist and why ? ||I am floored by Vermeer, and at the other end of the scale, I'm floored by Paul Klee. But I'm most drawn at this stage of my life to third world handicrafts and design, folk art. |
|What has been your favorite film this year? ||I actually don't go to the movies very often. I am so far behind on movies. One of the best things I watched last night was a movie from 1973, a treatment of the play The Homecoming, from the American Theater Film Series, with a fabulous mysterious script. |
|Hello, Mr. Emerson, I'm your big fan~ First I want to say is that there are lots of fans of you in China, and we all obsessed with your acting and personality. Then there are some questions I'm going to ask. Do you think the relationship between Finch and Reese will be different from the old days? ||1) well, that's the thing that the writers have to balance out. That relationship has to evolve and change, and yes, there has to be a kind of constancy in that relationship for the viewers. |
|Do you have any plan to shoot films? We really look forward to enjoying your acting in the cinema!!! ||3) Well, I think villains have a slight edge over heroes. |
| ||2) Someday it would be nice. I don't really have time for that work now, but maybe someday. |
|Did you and the other main actors on Lost have any idea what story you were telling or was it as much of a mystery to you as it was to the viewers? ||It was always a mystery to us as well. We never knew anything beyond the scenes we were shooting. We would tear into each new script with interest because we were trying to figure out where it was going too! |
|Where is the strangest location that somebody asked you for an autograph? ||Well, hardly anyone asks for an autograph anymore. I take 100 pictures for every autograph. I think that any public men's room is a strange place to be signing an autograph. It would be ok if that would be an off limits place where you didn't have those kinds of social interactions, maybe you wait until you get outside. |
|Hello Michael Emerson, I have two questions for you. Would something interesting happen if the Machine were to give you the number 4815162342? Are you hacking Reddit as we speak? ||You wish that I was! That would be a nice context in which to place this whole event. |
submitted by tabledresser
to tabled [link] [comments]
2013.10.06 00:10 tabledresser [Table] IAmA: I am Breaking Bad and The Walking Dead music supervisor, Thomas Golubić, ASK ME ANYTHING
Verified? (This bot cannot verify AMAs just yet) Date:
2013-10-05 Link to submission
Last updated: 2013-10-09 21:41 UTC This post was generated by a robot! Send all complaints to epsy.
|Questions ||Answers |
|So. Was Blue (Da Ba Bee) suggested as a song? ||Nope. |
|Welcome, Thomas! The moment that cemented my love for Breaking Bad was the final scene of Season 1, at the impound lot with Tuco. Gnarls Barkely's "Who's Gonna Save My Soul" plays the scene out, and it couldn't sum up Walt and Jesse's realization of how deep in shit they are any better. ||I can't speak to my favorite as I love them all, but am really happy to see you pointed out Gnarls Barkley's "Who's Gonna Save My Soul" at the end of season 1. |
|What has been your favorite music related scene or piece you've worked on, and why? ||We actually had a dilemma with that episode in that the writer's strike at the time ended our season early. There were originally going to be two more episodes one in which Jesse Pinkman was going to be killed. Thank God that didn't happen! When we got to the end of episode 107, which was going to be a relatively straightforward episode ender, we realized that this was suddenly going to be the season finale. By chance, I happened to be in Park City, Utah for a DJ gig at the Sundance Film Festival and bumped into my old friend Daniele Luppi, who had been working on the 2nd Gnarls Barkley record. I didn't even realize there was one in the works. When I got back to LA, I reached out to Danger Mouse and got an early version of that album. That song struck me as being a perfect way of being able to make more of the scene than was originally there. It worked out and we closed out the first season in style. |
|I absolutely loved the music in Breaking Bad, but my favorite musical moments happened during the end credits (at least in the netflix version of the show), where you would remix an important sound that occurred during the show into a song. For instance, the moment when you put hector's bell into music was utterly fantastic as a viewer and a listener. Now comes my question. What is your favorite song in real life, and what was your favorite song in the show? ||Hi Mrninja101. I should point out that the end title music for each episode of Breaking Bad is created by our very talented composer Dave Porter. He creates all those elegant call-backs and does remarkable work for Breaking Bad. There are two soundtracks of his work available online. Check Amazon. Well worth picking up. Can't speak to my favorite song or favorite song in Breaking Bad. There are too many wonderful ones, and you wouldn't ask a nun what her favorite child was in the orphanage. There's my diplomatic answer... |
|Was there ever a song that you wanted to use in Breaking Bad but couldn't find a way to fit it in? ||There are tons of them. Someday I'll look into putting together an 'almost made it onto Breaking Bad' mix and upload to our website, or Spotify. |
|Hi Thomas, thanks for all your work on the show! The music you chose gave Breaking Bad an even greater atmosphere than it had on its own. ||The creation of the narcocorrido "Negro y Azul: The Ballad of Heisnberg" was one of the most challenging efforts on Breaking Bad, and one that I am very proud of. Vince and the Breaking Bad writers had found an amazing video to a narcocorrido online and sent it over to me. "We want to make one of these about 'Heisenberg'" was the directive. |
|Are there any good stories for the song "Negro y Azul"? How did you find that group of musicians? What made them stand out? ||I looked into existing artists in the narcocorrido field but found that everybody I spoke to either had an outstanding warrant, or had immigration issues or otherwise needed to be paid in cash, which wasn't an option. Sony Picture Television wouldn't allow us to work 'under-the-table' so I reached out to one of the Godfathers of the genre Pepe Garza who runs a radio station that plays narcocorridos and also writes songs. He was hired to adapt a song that was written by the writers, and we reached out to Sony Music Latin who brought Los Cuates De Sinaloa to the table. It all came together in a low-key studio in Burbank and we shot the video on location in Albuquerque. It was a great adventure... |
|Why "Knife Party - Bonfire"? That was the most startling moment for me in all of Breaking Bad. ||We have Walt Sr. and Walt Jr. both acting like clowns. Writer Sam Catlin and Director Rian Johnson made a product placement opportunity into something really fun and story-specific and a bro-step rager like "Bonfire" felt right for it. Glad you liked it too... |
|I think my favourite music moment was repeating the full version of the intro in the penultimate episode. Felt so epic. Was that something you'd planned to do for a while and were trying to find the right time? ||That was all Dave Porter, our very talented composer for Breaking Bad. |
|Hey bud, so you're the chap who came up with Apparat's Goodbye for the scene where Gus walks towards the retirement home? I'd like to shake your hand someday, maybe. ||Thanks, Quakespeare. I will be happy to share in that handshake. That was another scene that I am particularly proud of. I remember that when Vince Gilligan first watched that scene with that song, he said it was one of his favorite music moments in the series up to that point. |
|Do you ever walk around with head phones on and try to score the world with the perfect music? ||All the time. Every moment you are alive is an opportunity to be creative and playing music through your adventures in life is a very nice way to spend it. IMO. |
|Hi, Thomas. Thanks for the AMA. I realise there might be several questions from Breaking Bad fans about that final scene in Felina, so I'll get mine in early. Before Vince Gilligan suggested Baby Blue, did you have any other songs in mind? How aware were you of Badfinger's work? ||Hi no1partyanthem, I was already well aware of Badfinger's work, and that song "Baby Blue" was in one of my mixtapes, but not one I sent off to Vince. I liked the song, but didn't really have a scene in mind for it. It was Vince who pulled it from his iPod when he was first working on the final episode, which he wrote and directed. Before I saw the scene, I pulled together a number of ideas - one which I thought worked pretty beautifully against picture: The Bees "No More Excuses" - but once I saw that beautiful shot, and saw the scene in context, I realized why Vince was so strongly attached to the Badfinger song. It's tricky for us as music supervisors in that we keep pulling together ideas and revising them. None of us know the right answer until we are at the very end of that process and have cut and locked picture to work with. Vince is just really talented at knowing what the final effect he is looking for, and knew early on that Badfinger's "Baby Blue" was the right choice for what he was looking to do. It took until the final picture was assembled that I was able to also see what a fantastic choice it was. |
|Hi Thomas - Thank you for taking the time to answer our questions. The tone of Breaking Bad gets much darker as the season go on. How did you try to capture that with the music? (genre, etc.) ||That's a tricky question. I would say, we always work with picture and with the story we are telling. By making sure we are always sensitive to that, we will deliver the right answers. In some cases, when the story in Breaking Bad is at its darkest - for example Ozymandias, this season - we ended up presenting a song to Vince "Take My True Love By The Hand" that was deceptively upbeat, but it did speak to the story we were telling and allowed the audience to take a little breath after the brutal actions that had preceded it. |
|How hard was it to decide the music for the Breaking Bad ending? Did Vince have a say? ||Vince always has a say. Breaking Bad is great because of Vince Gilligan's talent and generosity. He encourages all of us who work on the show - whether it be Bryan Cranston, Aaron Paul and the rest of the case, or Michael Slovis, our incredible Director of Photography or any of the members of his team, or the rest of the crew - to do our very best work, and he guides all of us to the best creative answers based upon the options we deliver to him. So, Vince has say in everything. It's his tireless work and generosity of spirit that make the show so special. |
|One of my favorite parts about the series was it's ability to use silence just as well as music to create tensions and dramatic moments. We're you involved at all in the decisions on where to add music but also where silence would be more effective? ||Excellent question. You guys are asking some really smart ones... We have what is called a 'music spotting session' where the showrunner, or director (for a film) and the key producers, editors, music editor, composer, music supervisor and often the key sound effects and dialogue supervisors all gather together in a room to watch the episode from start to finish and discuss all music, foley (sound effects) and dialogue (ADR) needs for the episode. This is a very creative session and we present, or come up with all the creative directives there. Then we each go back to our studios or workplaces and assemble the options or elements to deliver to the producers. In the case of Breaking Bad, we are very careful to use silence as a key ingredient in our creative palate. |
|Why did you chose "Breathe Me"? Excellent choice, by the way. ||Thank you, Morrison 21. Myself and my former partner in SMV, Gary Calamar, were both introduced to Sia when she guested on the Zero 7 record many years ago. We were big fans of that record and reached out to her management in Australia for more of her music. Gary and I were both DJs at Los Angeles radio station KCRW at the time. Folks don't remember this, but Sia's "Breathe Me" was actually used in the trailer for Season 5. Alan Ball loved the song so much that he decided it was what we should use to build the final sequence of the show, and that's how it came together. There's a much longer story about the complexities of making it work, but it was another mixtape discovery. |
|I have a bit of background in clearances for musical works. I'm curious what difficultly you've had in obtaining sync licenses for certain songs in the course of your career (especially given that producers/writers/directors/etc. may really depend on getting those specific selections)? ||Breaking Bad was a very poorly budgeted show. The entire production really strained to get the job done with the budget were afforded. It was because of Vince's stewardship and the quality of the scripts and production that everyone brought their A-game to the table. It would have been a lot easier if we'd had a more reasonable budget to work with. As far as sync licensing, we did our best to make the case for licensing music within those very narrow parameters and were very lucky in the generosity and understanding that was afforded us by our film and television licensing colleagues. Smart directors and showrunners recognize that we are the experts in licensing and when we let them know that something is unlikely to be affordable, they will entertain additional ideas that we present. It's always a struggle, but we do our best to be fair and honest with everyone about what we can and can't offer. |
|How was "Crapa Pelada" chosen for the scene at Gale's house? And did you ever consider using "Albuquerque" by Neil Young at any point for the show? ||That's a good question. As much as "Baby Blue" and "Crystal Blue Persuasion" are both pretty on-the-nose, we generally don't do too many literal song choices in the show. Also, Neil Young is notoriously difficult to license so we tend to avoid pitching his songs. "Crapa Pelada" was a song I discovered on a compilation of music from the 1930-1960s of Italian pop music from the Sugar Label. It's one of those songs I would DJ out when I had painted myself into a corner and needed to cleanse the proverbial palate. When we discovered that the very talented David Costabile, who played Gale Boetticher, was also a talented singer, it gave us a wonderful opportunity to showcase that skill. Gale always seemed like a character that would travel the world with great love and enthusiasm and would want to learn the local languages and learn the local songs. This was a particularly difficult one to sing, but David knocked it out of the park. Also check his full-length version of Gale singing 'Major Tom' in a Thai karaoke joint. It's a genius performance. |
|Did you consider Bob Dylan's "It's AllOver Now, Baby blue" for the BB finale? Seems like a dumb question but what a great song about tangled webs, no? ||Love the song, but it's been used too many times in high-profile scenes. I try to not to re-use songs that have been used really well before against picture. Martin Scorcese's "Goodfellas" took a lot of amazing music off the creative table for us, as did Paul Thomas Anderson's "Boogie Nights". Hopefully we used music in a creative dynamic and exciting way on 'Breaking Bad', 'The Walking Dead' and 'Ray Donovan' and those songs have a strong home in the imagination of fans. |
|Hey Thomas. Do you do record/produce/create your own music? If so, what is your setup gear wise? Also, how big is your record collection? ||Great question, prariedan. I do produce music. I have a mash-up music production project called 'The Arbiters'. You can download two EPs of music for free from my bandcamp site: Link to arbiters.bandcamp.com The first EP was inspired by Brian Burton aka Danger Mouse's "Grey Album" and was completed in 2006 and called "They Are Biters". The song "Sure Side of Fame" which was a mash-up of Lou Reed "Walk on the Wild Side", David Bowie "Fame", St. Germain "Sure Thing" and vocals by Biggie and Tupac got a nice amount of club and radio play. The second EP "Arrival" was released in 2010. You can download them both from that website. I use Ableton software to create them and work with co-producers who polish my ideas nicely. |
|If you could be any character from Breaking Bad or The Walking Dead, who would it be? ||Badger :) |
|Have you ever regretted a either using, or not using a certain song, or piece of music? Any particular faux-pas spring to mind...? ||That's a great question. On Breaking Bad there is only one song that I didn't love, and we placed it because of a clearance problem at the very last minute. For the sake of discretion, I don't want to point it out. But that project suffers from almost no mis-steps. I don't really think it's my job to look back at the work and judge it. That's for you folks to do... |
|What was your favorite piece to work on for Breaking Bad? ||Great question, Torquedo. I am not sure. There are so many wonderful scenes that I've spent countless long sleepless nights working on. I love what I do, and there is a special magic when you find that perfect song that falls beautifully against picture and tells your story in a unique and surprising way. There's nothing quite like that feeling. Sometimes it comes very quickly and sometimes it takes days or weeks of digging to find. So, I can't really answer that. But if you take a look at our website: Link to www.supermusicvision.com myself and my team have assembled clips of a few of our favorites. cheers... |
|What were the reasons you chose Tom Wait's Hold On for Beth to sing in Walking Dead? ||That was a song that then showrunner Glen Mazzara chose for the scene. I love Tom Waits - I wore a "Tom Waits for No One" pin on my jacket in highschool - and had spent the better part of a decade looking for a home for one of his songs without any luck. We almost found a home for "Big Black Mariah" in a scene in Six Feet Under when Nate has a fantasy sequence that he is in the afterlife waiting room in a restaurant with his dead dad, but we ran out of music budget and couldn't afford it. I was thrilled that Glen was up for using "Hold On" and actress Emily Kinney did a great job singing it. |
|Will you be working at all on the spin off show for Saul Goodman? Do you know anything about it that you could tell us? ||We'll see. Nobody has asked me yet. Fingers crossed. |
|Hey Thomas, can you talk a little about how you became a music supervisor? Do you also play any instruments? ||Hi Scooby4. There is a "Huffington Post" interview that gets into some detail about my road into music supervision. I'm sure you can find it with a quick search. In short... I went to film school at Boston University, and ended up getting into journalism because of the war in Yugoslavia in 1991, and ended up working as a writer and journalist for the next 10 years or so. I started an internet magazine in Los Angeles called the "LA Magnet" Los Angeles Magazine on the Net. But lost a lot of money trying to keep it alive. We were too early, and there were no city-oriented online magazines at the time. I volunteered at KCRW 89.9 FM a radio station here in LA, and was offered a job doing A&R (artist & repertoire) and realized I would be terrible at it. Somebody suggested I look into music supervision, which I didn't even know was a job. I met G. Marq Roswell through my friend Gary Calamar and started working for his company as an intern. I worked as an intern for a year, learned the basic ropes and then broke off on my own, where I spent the next two years eating Ramen noodles and barely making rent. But I learned a lot, and with hard work and perseverance, I was eventually able to make a living at it and build the company I have today. |
|Hey Thomas thank you for everything you've done to bring such awesome music to the fore. I'm curious what would you say is the best pairing of music and image in movies or tv that you have seen outside of your own work? ||Great question Savvy_Sav. I will go back to the experience that I think started it all for me: Stanley Kubrick's "2001: A Space Odyssey". My dad brought me to the Nickelodeon Theatre in Boston for a screening of the 10th annniversary of the film. I was 10 years old and completely mesmerized by the experience. I still think all of us are working our way up to what Stanley Kubrick did in 1968. |
|Thanks for doing this AMA! How many genres will you typically experiment with when trying to choose music for a scene? Or do you typically immediately have a feeling for a direction you want to go in when working on visual/musical pairings? Do you examine lyrical content when choosing non-English songs (like Quimey Neuquén in the "Buried" episode of BrBa)? ||That's an excellent question, decenthappiness. We put thought into everything on 'Breaking Bad'. Vince Gilligan is absolutely meticulous about every detail of the show and we make sure that the music has also been thoroughly thought-through. If a song is in a different language, we are sure to have and often present the translation. There was a lot of effort involved in translating "Crapa Pelada" which is in an extinct Italian dialect specific to Milan. We will often take poetic license with songs, but always want to make sure that it feels right to the audience whether they speak the language or not. It's one of the joys of Breaking Bad. Nothing is by accident. |
|How much does the cost of a song factor into your decision for using it? will you typically price up songs before even attempting to suggest them? or is everything considered from the start? ||Excellent and very intuitive question. Budget makes a HUGE difference in what makes into Breaking Bad. As I mentioned earlier, the music budget for the show was inadequate from the start was a constant challenge. We tend to pre-clear (as much as possible) every choice we deliver to showrunner Vince Gilligan. In the few times when he selected something we couldn't end up affording, it was such a disappointment, we never wanted to revisit that experience again. So, in short, the cost of a song is a very big factor in our decision making. |
|Do you have any projects lined up for the future now that Breaking bad has finished? ||We do. |
| ||The Walking Dead - Season 4 (premeries Oct 13th, I think) Ray Donovan - Season 2 (Showtime) Back in the Game - Season 1 (ABC) Halt and Catch Fire - Season 1 (AMC) Turn - Season 1 (AMC) |
| ||Lots of work ahead... |
|What was the work flow--would they edit scenes before or after they had the music? Or both? ||This wouldn't by chance be former Massachusetts Governor William Weld, would it? Just kidding. Our work-flow depends on the episodes needs. Sometimes we would send music ideas to the writers so they could work a song into the script, other times we would send music ideas to the directors and actors to get into character or choreograph a sequence. For example the narcocorrido "Negro y Azul: The Ballad of Heisenberg" was worked on at the script stage and then developed before we ever shot the episode. Other times, in fact most times, we work with picture and try to find the right answer once the episode is in editing. |
|Playing Gounod’s Faust in the the scene with the schwartze's was genius. whose call was that? ||I can take credit for that one. I grew up listening to classical music, and read a lot as a child. I know the story of Faust and that particular piece of music and we knew that we could have some fun with "scoring" Walt ambushing Gretchen and Elliott and at the same time wanted to make sure that the music choice felt like something realistic they would program into their very expensive modern house alarm/music system. |
|Another question I wanted to ask you about is regarding song ownership. How do you and your colleagues feel about non-exclusively represented songs (specifically music libraries that re-title the songs)? Thanks again! ||I'll be quick on this one... We hate re-titling. It's a bad idea, it creates confusion, it allows for a lot of illegitimate tagging of songs, and crediting writers who didn't write a song. We try our best to avoid working with companies that do retitling. I would suggest the same to any artists out there. Regarding exclusivity, that's a judgement call for individual artists. If you meet someone that wants to represent your songs and you trust that they will do great work, and the terms they represent feel fair, I think an exclusive arrangement is ideal. You trust them, they trust you and you see how it goes. I would give this a good year window and if it doesn't seem to work out, move your songs elsewhere. I would NOT recommend giving anyone your publishing, unless they truly act as a music publisher. Hope that's helpful. |
|I was pleasantly surprised by some of the music choices in breaking bad like bassnectar and knife party. How did these choices get pitched and ultimately accepted into the series? ||They just felt right for the scene. Vince Gilligan really trusts his collaborators and if he doesn't know the music, or at times may not even like the music, but does feel they are right for the storytelling, he greenlights those choices. The breadth of music selection in Breaking Bad is as much a tribute to Vince Gilligan's bravery as it is to my obscene music collection. |
|Were any of the musicians whose music you used in BrBa fans of the show? ||Absolutely. We brought Steve Perry from Journey to the Breaking Bad premiere and he is just about the nicest guy you could ever meet... |
|Do you have any pointers for people who just want to put some of their original songs or compositions up online and no worry about copyrights, massive storage costs, etc? "Windy" (1967) was genius, guys, by the way! ||Soundcloud does the trick pretty well. |
|I have a question about the Six Feet Under theme. I absolutely LOVE the part where the flowers wilt. It's so fitting with the music and the show as a whole. 1) Is that something you talk to the editors about when putting together opening credits? 2) Also, in season 5, Billy and Claire's manic scenes were accompanied by frenzied music. How did you choose the songs for those scenes? ||In the case of the 'Six Feet Under' theme, that was actually written by Thomas Newman prior to the creation of the opening main titles by a Seattle company called Digital Kitchen. Ordinarily, the visuals and music are created at the same time, or the music is written to accompany visuals. In the case of the Main Title to 'The Killing', I worked with both the company that designed the visuals 'Sarofsky' and the band that created the music 'We Fell to Earth' and we worked back and forth to make that come together. Most of the time, music is created for the existing visuals. Six Feet Under worked in the opposite manner, but what a beautiful result! For your question 2. We worked against picture for the scenes with Claire and Billy. Their relationship was a fun one to work on as they both brought out the best and the worst in each other, we spent a lot of time trying to get the music choices right for that. |
|Hey Thomas, can you talk about working with Dave Porter and how often you would have to communicate to determine what would need original score music versus what would need a licensed song? ||I love working with Dave Porter on Breaking Bad. I had known Dave and his work prior to the show and introduced him to Vince and our producers when we were first looking for a composer. He has done stunning work on the series and hopefully this will be one of many amazing projects he does. Dave Porter rulez!!! |
|From Iron Maiden? ||Nope. My friend Fred has his birthday on the day I met Eddie the dog. He was from the Long Beach animal shelter and had just barely survived being put to sleep. Fred became Ed, which became Eddie. |
|Hey Thomas, I saw you at Bonnaroo this year while you played a soundtrack for the Harold Lloyd silent film Safety Last. This was a really cool experience and something I hope more people get a chance to see. Do you have any plans for doing more events like this? ||How nice that you were there! It was great fun. I was actually invited by Bonnaroo to perform a live DJ re-score of the film "The Road Warrior" but wasn't able to get permission from Warner Bros to do it. We then tried to get them to ok a live DJ re-score of "Blade Runner" but got the same response. A last-ditch effort to get approval for doing a hip hop re-score of "American Psycho" was also met with a denial, so Sue Lloyd, Harold Lloyd's granddaughter was kind enough to let me perform a re-score of Harold's classic "Safety Last". I would love to do another one, maybe next year at Bonnaroo or some other music festival. Fingers crossed somebody asks me. Glad you got a chance to see that one. It was great fun! |
|Please bring some clarity to the debate; was Daft Punk's Random Access Memories any good? ||It's just my opinion, but I do think it's great. What's wonderful about Daft Punk albums is that they don't always show their charms on the first listen and they don't always feel like coherent or even contemporary statements. But they are always interesting, and always ahead of the times. I think "Random Access Memories" is one of those albums you'll enjoy pulling out and listening to 10 years from now. I'm not sure I'll feel that way about Justin Timberlake's "20/20 Experience". |
|Did you realise Breaking Bad would be such a hit, or where you going on a hunch? ||I loved the pilot to Breaking Bad the first time I saw it. I don't think I am particularly talented at guessing what will be popular, but I am pretty good at figuring out what is of high quality with people who are talented and enjoyable to work with. I've been lucky enough to be on a few of those projects over the years. |
|Hi thomas!! happy saturday! i just moved to LA and want to intern at SMV. is that possible? i'll be your assistant's assistant. or i'll walk eddie, i just really wanna get my foot in the music supervision door. thanks so much! ||Thanks Danidooo. Welcome to LA. Thanks for the offer, but we already have a full staff at SMV and young Eddie is walked often enough. Appreciate the offer. |
|What's the most consistently underrated band you love? ||There are many. One of my favorite underrated bands that I was sure I would find a home in Breaking Bad was 'The Bees' or 'Band of Bees' as they are known in the U.S. Sadly, we never found a song to work magic in a scene. Hope people will get to know the band and explore their music. |
|Hey Thomas, huge local fan. How much interaction does it take to match music with the editor? ||We work closely with all the editors on our different projects. Everyone is working toward telling the story in the best way and often it's the editors that can make something work seamlessly. What Kelley Dixon (editor) and Michelle MacLaren (director) did with Moira Walley-Beckett's script for "Gliding Over All", episode 508, is remarkable. The integration of all those elements in the "Crystal Blue Persuasion" sequence is a tribute to that. It's very much a team effort. |
|If you could work with one composer today, who would it be? ||Alive or dead? Dead: Dmitri Shostakovich. Alive: Arvo Part. |
|Was there ever a disagreement between you and Vince on choice of music? I've heard he's pretty easy to work with but I've wondered if he's ever put his foot down. ||There was never a disagreement. Vince knows his story better than anyone else does, and we all follow his lead. I've learned more about storytelling with music on "Breaking Bad" than any other project and have Vince to thank for that. We always arrived at the right answer for the story and the characters, and I think the end results speak to that. |
|Hey Thomas! A lot of the music is Season 5B was very dark and chilling, such as the scene where Jesse goes to Walts house with thd gascan. Where can one find music like that? Thanks! ||Dave Porter's music is collected on two soundtrack albums of Breaking Bad score, both available on iTunes and on Amazon. Great albums both. |
|Lots of people are confusing Dave Porter and Golubic. Golubic supervises what songs get put on the show. Porter scores the theme of the show. ||Thanks for sharing that clarification. Thomas... |
|Thanks for introducing me to Ana Tijoux and Knife Party. Goddamn you're good at what you do. ||Thanks, Violet. Appreciate the kind words. I can give props here to Tom Schnauz's lovely wife Maya for presenting Ana Tijoux to the show. That was her idea. As I mentioned earlier, it's very much a group effort. |
|That Digital Animal song by Honey Claws is ridiculous, and I would never have heard it without you. Thank you. ||My pleasure. It was a great way to end that sad and desperate episode for Jesse. That's a good example of where affordable music is presented to me and works really well against picture. We had very little source music budget left in that very music-intensive episode and because "Digital Animal" was affordable to us, and creatively worked really well in the scene, it got to take us out of the episode and turned a lot of folks onto Honey Claws. |
|I can't think of a question, but your dog is cute. ||Thanks, Rocketshipotter. Eddie is the best dog in the world. |
|I just want to thank you for introducing me to Unga Bunga. ||Yeaah Boy!!! |
submitted by tabledresser
to tabled [link] [comments]